0
Research Papers: Friction and Wear

The Influence of Thermal Oxidation Parameters on Structural, Friction, and Wear Characteristics of Oxide Layers Produced on the Surface of Ti–6Al–7Nb Alloy

[+] Author and Article Information
Krzysztof Aniołek

Faculty of Computer Science and Materials
Science,
Institute of Materials Science,
University of Silesia,
ul. 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A,
Chorzów 41-500, Poland
e-mail: krzysztof.aniolek@us.edu.pl

Adrian Barylski, Marian Kupka, Joanna Tylka

Faculty of Computer Science and Materials
Science,
Institute of Materials Science,
University of Silesia,
ul. 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A,
Chorzów 41-500, Poland

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received April 18, 2018; final manuscript received October 23, 2018; published online December 6, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Satish V. Kailas.

J. Tribol 141(3), 031605 (Dec 06, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1160; doi: 10.1115/1.4042001 History: Received April 18, 2018; Revised October 23, 2018

The effects of thermal oxidation of a biomedical titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–7Nb) on its morphology, structure, mechanical properties, and sliding friction and wear against alumina were investigated. It was found that at 600 °C, the surface of the alloy was characterized with a thin inhomogeneous oxide scale. Increasing the temperature of oxidation to 700 °C and 800 °C allowed obtaining homogeneous layers, which fully covered the examined surfaces. By contrast, the oxide scale obtained at 800 °C was composed of big oxide particles with a developed surface. Thermal oxidation process allows a fourfold increase in the hardness of Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. It was shown that the oxide scale on the examined alloy efficiently enhances its resistance to sliding wear against alumina.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Driver, M. , 2012, Coatings for Biomedical Applications, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK.
Wang, S. , Liao, Z. , Liu, Y. , and Liu, W. , 2015, “ Influence of Thermal Oxidation Duration on the Microstructure and Fretting Wear Behavior of Ti-6Al–4V Alloy,” Mater. Chem. Phys., 159, pp. 139–151. [CrossRef]
Luo, Y. , Chen, W. , Tian, M. , and Teng, S. , 2015, “ Thermal Oxidation of Ti6Al4V Alloy and Its Biotribological Properties Under Serum Lubrication,” Tribol. Int., 89, pp. 67–71. [CrossRef]
Mizukoshi, Y. , and Masahashi, N. , 2014, “ Fabrication of a TiO2 Photocatalyst by Anodic Oxidation of Ti in an Acetic Acid Electrolyte,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 240, pp. 226–232. [CrossRef]
Huang, X. , and Liu, Z. , 2013, “ Growth of Titanium Oxide or Titanate Nanostructured Thin Films on Ti Substrates by Anodic Oxidation in Alkali Solutions,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 232, pp. 224–233. [CrossRef]
Zhu, Y. , Wang, W. , Jia, X. , Akasaka, T. , Liao, S. , and Watari, F. , 2012, “ Deposition of TiC Film on Titanium for Abrasion Resistant Implant Material by Ion-Enhanced Triode Plasma CVD,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 262, pp. 156–158. [CrossRef]
Wang, S. , Liao, Z. , Liu, Y. , and Liu, W. , 2014, “ Different Tribological Behaviors of Titanium Alloys Modified by Thermal Oxidation and Spraying Diamond Like Carbon,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 252, pp. 64–73. [CrossRef]
Braceras, I. , Vera, C. , Ayerdi-Izquierdo, A. , Muñoz, R. , Lorenzo, J. , Alvarez, N. , and Ángel de Maeztu, M. , 2014, “ Ion Implantation Induced Nanotopography on Titanium and Bone Cell Adhesion,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 310, pp. 24–30. [CrossRef]
Filip, R. , 2008, “ Laser Nitriding of the Surface Layer of Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy,” Arch. Mater. Sci. Eng., 30(1), pp. 25–28. http://www.amse.acmsse.h2.pl/vol30_1/3016.pdf
Nohava, J. , Dessarzin, P. , Karvankova, P. , and Morstein, M. , 2015, “ Characterization of Tribological Behavior and Wear Mechanisms of Novel Oxynitride PVD Coatings Designed for Applications at High Temperatures,” Tribol. Int., 81, pp. 231–239. [CrossRef]
Qu, J. , Blau, P. J. , and Jolly, B. C. , 2009, “ Oxygen-Diffused Titanium as a Candidate Brake Rotor Material,” Wear, 267(5–8), pp. 818–822. [CrossRef]
Kumar, S. , Sankara Narayanan, T. S. N. , Ganesh Sundara Raman, S. , and Seshadri, S. K. , 2010, “ Thermal Oxidation of Ti6Al4V Alloy: Microstructural and Electrochemical Characterization,” Mater. Chem. Phys., 119(1–2), pp. 337–346. [CrossRef]
Biswas, A. , Srikant, P. V. S. , Manna, I. , Chatterjee, U. K. , and Dutta Majumdar, J. , 2008, “ Chemical Oxidation of Ti–6Al–4V for Improved Wear and Corrosion Resistance,” Surf. Eng., 24(6), pp. 442–446. [CrossRef]
Aniołek, K. , Kupka, M. , Barylski, A. , and Dercz, G. , 2015, “ Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Oxide Layers Obtained on Titanium in the Thermal Oxidation Process,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 357, pp. 1419–1426. [CrossRef]
Aniołek, K. , Kupka, M. , and Barylski, A. , 2016, “ Sliding Wear Resistance of Oxide Layers Formed on a Titanium Surface During Thermal Oxidation,” Wear, 356–357, pp. 23–29. [CrossRef]
Ravi Shankar, A. , Karthiselva, N. S. , and Kamachi Mudali, U. , 2013, “ Thermal Oxidation of Titanium to Improve Corrosion Resistance in Boiling Nitric Acid Medium,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 235, pp. 45–53. [CrossRef]
Jamesh, M. , Sankara Narayanan, T. S. N. , and Chu, P. K. , 2013, “ Thermal Oxidation of Titanium: Evaluation of Corrosion Resistance as a Function of Cooling Rate,” Mater. Chem. Phys., 138(2–3), pp. 565–572. [CrossRef]
Jamesh, M. , Kumar, S. , and Sankara Narayanan, T. S. N. , 2012, “ Effect of Thermal Oxidation on Corrosion Resistance of Commercially Pure Titanium in Acid Medium,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 21(6), pp. 900–906.
Borgioli, F. , Galvanetto, E. , Iozzelli, F. , and Pradelli, G. , 2005, “ Improvement of Wear Resistance of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy by Means of Thermal Oxidation,” Mater. Lett., 59(17), pp. 2159–2162. [CrossRef]
Cui, X. H. , Mao, Y. S. , Wei, M. X. , and Wang, S. Q. , 2012, “ Wear Characteristics of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy at 20–400 °C,” Tribol. Trans., 55(2), pp. 185–190. [CrossRef]
Ashok Raj, J. , Pottirayil, A. , and Kailas, S. V. , 2016, “ Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Ti–6Al–4V Pin Against SS316 L Disk at Constant Contact Pressure,” ASME J. Tribol., 139(2), p. 021603. [CrossRef]
Aniołek, K. , Kupka, M. , Łuczuk, M. , and Barylski, A. , 2015, “ Isothermal Oxidation of Ti–6Al–7Nb Alloy,” Vacuum, 114, pp. 114–118. [CrossRef]
Jiang, H. , Hirohasi, M. , and Lu, Y. , 2002, “ Imanari H. Effect of Nb on the High Temperature Oxidation of Ti–(0–50 at.%)Al,” Scr. Mater., 46(9), pp. 639–643. [CrossRef]
Yoshihara, M. , and Kim, Y. W. , 2005, “ Oxidation Behaviour of Gamma Alloys Designed for High Temperature Applications,” Intermetallics, 13(9), pp. 952–958. [CrossRef]
Cimenoglu, H. , Meydanoglu, O. , Baydogan, M. , Bermek, H. , Huner, P. , and Kayali, E. S. , 2011, “ Characterization of Thermally Oxidized Ti6Al7Nb Alloy for Biological Applications,” Met. Mater. Int., 17(5), pp. 765–770. [CrossRef]
Wang, S. , Liao, Z. , Liu, Y. , and Liu, W. , 2014, “ Influence of Thermal Oxidation Temperature on the Microstructural and Tribological Behavior of Ti6Al4V Alloy,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 240, pp. 470–477. [CrossRef]
Biswas, A. , and Majumdar, J. D. , 2009, “ Surface Characterization and Mechanical Property Evaluation of Thermally Oxidized Ti–6Al–4V,” Mater. Charact., 60(6), pp. 513–518. [CrossRef]
Xia, J. , Li, C. X. , and Dong, H. , 2005, “ Thermal Oxidation Treatment of B2 Iron Aluminide for Improved Wear Resistance,” Wear, 258(11–12), pp. 1804–1812. [CrossRef]
Guleryuz, H. , and Cimenoglu, H. , 2004, “ Effect of Thermal Oxidation on Corrosion and Corrosion–Wear Behaviour of a Ti–6Al–4V Alloy,” Biomaterials, 25, pp. 3325–3333. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bloyce, A. , Qi, P.-Y. , Dong, H. , and Bell, T. , 1998, “ Surface Modification of Titanium Alloys for Combined Improvements in Corrosion and Wear Resistance,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 107, pp. 125–132. [CrossRef]
Arslan, E. , Totik, Y. , Demirci, E. , and Alsaran, A. , 2010, “ Influence of Surface Roughness on Corrosion and Tribological Behavior of CP-Ti After Thermal Oxidation Treatment,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 19(3), pp. 428–433. [CrossRef]
Archard, J. F. , 1953, “ Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys., 24(8), pp. 981–988. [CrossRef]
Dearnley, P. A. , Dahm, K. L. , and Çimenoglu, H. , 2004, “ The Corrosion–Wear Behaviour of Thermally Oxidized CP-Ti and Ti–6Al–4V,” Wear, 256(5), pp. 469–479. [CrossRef]
Fellah, M. , Assala, O. , Labaïz, M. , Dekhil, L. , and Iost, A. , 2013, “ Friction and Wear Behavior of Ti–6Al–7Nb Biomaterial Alloy,” J. Biomater. Nanobiotechnol., 4(4), pp. 374–384. [CrossRef]
Siva Rama Krishna, D. , Brama, Y. L. , and Sun, Y. , 2007, “ Thick Rutile Layer on Titanium for Tribological Applications,” Tribol. Int., 40(2), pp. 329–334. [CrossRef]
Bailey, R. , and Sun, Y. , 2013, “ Unlubricated Sliding Friction and Wear Characteristics of Thermally Oxidized Commercially Pure Titanium,” Wear, 308(1–2), pp. 61–70. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Surface morphology of the oxide layer after treatment at 600 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Surface morphology of the oxide layer after treatment at 700 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Surface morphology of the oxide layer after treatment at 800 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional images of the oxide layers obtained on Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy as a result of oxidation at 700 °C (a) and 800 °C (b) for 72 h (SEM)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Hardness of Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy surface depending on oxidation temperature and load

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Linear wear of the interacting tribological couple

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Volumetric wear of the disk after tribological tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Volumetric wear of Al2O3 balls after tribological tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The course of changes in the coefficient of friction recorded during a tribological interaction of an Al2O3 ball with the surface of nonoxidized and oxidized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy at temperatures of 600, 700, and 800 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Measurement results of the friction coefficient obtained in tribological tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Isometric images (3D) of wear traces on a nonoxidized surface (a) and surface oxidized at temperatures (b) 600 °C, (c) 700 °C, and (d) 800 °C of the Ti–6Al–7Nb disk

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Isometric (3D) images of the working surface of Al2O3 balls after contact with: (a) nonoxidized surface and surface oxidized at temperatures, (b) 600 °C, (c) 700 °C, and (d) 800 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

SEM micrograph of wear traces formed on the untreated Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy along with the EDS analysis area

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

SEM micrograph of wear traces formed on the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy oxidized at 600 °C/72 h along with the EDS analysis area

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

SEM micrograph of wear traces formed on the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy oxidized at 700 °C/72 h along with the EDS analysis area

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

SEM micrograph of wear traces formed on the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy oxidized at 800 °C/72 h along with the EDS analysis area

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In