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Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Friction and Wear Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Ionic Liquids for Sustainability of Biolubricants

[+] Author and Article Information
Carlton J. Reeves

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Nevada-Reno,
Reno, NV 89557
e-mail: creeves005@gmail.com

Arpith Siddaiah

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Nevada-Reno,
Reno, NV 89557
e-mail: asiddaiah@nevada.unr.edu

Pradeep L. Menezes

Department of Mechanical Engineering;Nevada Institute for Sustainability,
University of Nevada-Reno,
Reno, NV 89557
e-mail: pmenezes@unr.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Tribology. Manuscript received September 17, 2018; final manuscript received February 6, 2019; published online March 11, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Satish V. Kailas.

J. Tribol 141(5), 051604 (Mar 11, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1391; doi: 10.1115/1.4042872 History: Received September 17, 2018; Accepted February 06, 2019

The sustainability of biolubricants as green alternatives for industrial and machinery lubrication is questionable due to their unreliable oxidative stability, high pour point, and easy accumulation of contaminants that affect their tribological performance. Bio-based ionic liquid (IL) lubricants, which are environmentally friendly liquid state salts, have overcome these concerns related to conventional biolubricants. The present study investigates the effect of varying cation–anion moieties in ILs to understand their tribological performance and industrial viability. The industrial viability was analyzed by scaling their friction and wear behaviors against conventional biolubricants, and petroleum-based oils. The study investigated both bio- and nonbio-based ILs. Among the ILs examined, P666,14Saccharinate, P666,14Salicyate, and P666,14Benzoate were found to have superior tribological properties. The presence of large alkyl cation chain length and large aromatic anion ring size in ILs can effectively reduce friction and wear. This study details the mechanism by which the structural combinations of anion and cation in ILs define the tribological behavior of the bulk IL. Additionally, this study also highlights the environmentally benign nature of IL lubricants for possible industrial applications.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Evolution of friction and wear during pin-on-disk test in P666,14Saccharinate ionic liquid lubricant

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Variation of the coefficient of friction at the completion of the tests for different anion–cation moieties: (a) X+Tf2N cation study and (b) P666,14X anion study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Variation of the wear volume at the completion of the tests for different anion–cation moieties: (a) X+Tf2N cation study and (b) P666,14X anion study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

SEM micrograph of worn pin surfaces lubricated with ILs of varying cation moieties at 700× magnification: (a) P666,14Tf2N, (b) P666,14Benzoate, (c) C8mimTf2N, (d) C6mimTf2N, (e) C5mimTf2N, and (f) C3mimTf2N

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

SEM micrographs of a worn pin surfaces lubricated with ILs of varying anion moieties at 30× magnification: (a) P666,14Saccharinate, (b) P666,14Cylyclohexane, and (c) P666,14Cl

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Variation of the tribological properties for different mixtures of eco-friendly ionic liquids, natural oils, conventional ionic liquids, and commercial lubricants: (a) coefficient of friction (b) wear volume

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

SEM micrographs of the worn stainless-steel disk lubricated with the (a) P666,14Saccharinate and (b) peanut oil

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrograph of the (a) 440C stainless-steel disk and (b) 2024 aluminum pin

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