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Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Modeling of Abraded Surface Roughness and Wear Resistance of Aluminum Matrix Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Santanu Sardar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology,
Shibpur, Howrah 711103, West Bengal, India
e-mail: san_becme.rs2013@mech.iiests.ac.in

Susanta Kumar Pradhan

Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering,
Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology,
Shibpur, Howrah 711103, West Bengal, India
e-mail: susanta@nitsikkim.ac.in

Santanu Kumar Karmakar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology,
Shibpur, Howrah 711103, West Bengal, India
e-mail: skk@mech.iiests.ac.in

Debdulal Das

Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering,
Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology,
Shibpur, Howrah 711103, West Bengal, India
e-mail: debdulal_das@metal.iiests.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Sikkim, Barfung Block Ravangla Sub-Division, South Sikkim 737139, Sikkim, India.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Tribology. Manuscript received February 11, 2019; final manuscript received April 25, 2019; published online May 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Yi Zhu.

J. Tribol 141(7), 071601 (May 17, 2019) (19 pages) Paper No: TRIB-19-1066; doi: 10.1115/1.4043642 History: Received February 11, 2019; Accepted April 25, 2019

Tribological characterizations of composites are primarily focused on the evaluation of wear resistance (WR) and/or the coefficient of friction, although roughness of abraded surfaces (RASs) is one of the key factors that also determines tribo-performances. This study is aimed at modeling RAS in conjunction with WR considering experimental results of Al-matrix/alumina composites performed under two-body abrasion following the central composite design method. Influences of different in situ and ex situ parameters on tribo-responses were analyzed and modeled using analysis of variance, the response surface method, and multi-response optimization. The WR of the selected system was maximized at around 15 wt% alumina at which RAS was also the highest. The positive role of reinforcement on WR and its adverse effect on RAS were explained by micro-mechanisms of abrasion.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Representative optical images of as-cast (a) BA, (b) Comp10, and (c) Comp20. The inset in (a) presents thin elongated phases (intermetallics) in the enlarged view of the microstructure of BA. BA: base alloy; Comp10: 10 wt% alumina (Al2O3) reinforced composite; and Comp20: 20 wt% alumina (Al2O3) reinforced composite.

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Fig. 2

Representative SEM micrographs of (a) BA and (e) Comp20. The inset SEM image under the BSE mode in (a) represents magnified images of a sub-part of a precipitate developed on the microstructure of the base alloy. The figures (b), (c), and (d) present EDX profiles along with the results of semi-quantitative elemental analyses of the alloy, and (f) depicts the EDX profile showing the results of semi-quantitative elemental analysis of the Comp20. BA: base alloy and Comp20: 20 wt% alumina (Al2O3) reinforced composite.

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Fig. 3

Main effect plots for (a) wear resistance (in m mm−3) and (b) surface roughness, Ra (in µm)

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Fig. 4

Three-dimensional surface plots of (a)–(c) wear resistance (in m mm−3) and (d)–(f) roughness (in µm) present the interacting effects of factors between reinforcement quantity and load, reinforcement quantity and abrasive size, and load and abrasive size. The factors—reinforcement quantity and load are in wt% and N, respectively. The significant interaction effects are presented.

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Fig. 5

Predicted and experimental results of (a) wear resistance (in m mm−3) and (b) surface roughness (Ra in µm)

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Fig. 6

Representative scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of abraded surfaces of (a) and (b) BA, and (c)–(f) composites (10 and 20 wt% alumina reinforced) developed under a load of 40 N, abrasive size of 30 µm, and sliding distance of 20 m. BA: base alloy; Comp10: 10 wt% alumina (Al2O3) reinforced composite; and Comp20: 20 wt% alumina (Al2O3) reinforced composite.

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Fig. 7

Representative SEM micrographs of wear debris of (a) and (b) BA, and (c)–(f) composites (10 and 20 wt% alumina reinforced) developed under a load of 40 N, an abrasive size of 30 µm, and sliding distance of 20 m. BA: base alloy; Comp10: 10 wt% alumina (Al2O3) reinforced composite; and Comp20: 20 wt% alumina (Al2O3) reinforced composite.

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Fig. 8

(a)–(b) and (c)–(d) present SEM micrographs of worn surfaces and wear debris of 10 wt% alumina (Al2O3) reinforced composite against 17 and 30 µm sized abrasives, respectively, under a load of 40 N and sliding distance of 20 m. The area, marked as 1 in d, corresponds to the EDX profile of the metallic debris in (e); and area marked as 2 in d corresponds to the EDX profile of SiC abrasive in (f) along with the respective semi-quantitative elemental analyses. Comp10: 10 wt% alumina (Al2O3) reinforced composite.

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Fig. 9

Surface topographies of the worn surfaces of (a) base alloy, (b) 10 wt% alumina-reinforced composite, and (c) 20 wt% alumina-reinforced composite under abrasive wear condition of test nos. 17, 27, and 18 in Table 1, respectively (load: 40 N, SiC abrasive size: 23 µm, sliding distance: 20 m). BA: base alloy; Comp10: 10 wt% alumina (Al2O3) reinforced composite; and Comp20: 20 wt% alumina (Al2O3) reinforced composite.

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Fig. 10

Surface topographies of the abraded surfaces of 10 wt% alumina (Al2O3) reinforced composite under (a) load 20 N, (b) load 40 N, and (c) load 60 N corresponding to test nos. 19, 25, and 20 in Table 1, respectively (SiC abrasive size: 23 µm, sliding distance: 20 m)

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Fig. 11

Surface topographies of the abraded surfaces of the unreinforced alloy under SiC abrasive size of (a) 17, (b) 23, and (c) 30 µm corresponding to a load of 20 N and a sliding distance of 10 m

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Fig. 12

Schematic illustration of the development of worn surfaces with varying surface undulations for the base alloy and the composite. BA: base alloy and Comp10: 10 wt% alumina (Al2O3) reinforced composite.

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