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Research Papers: Applications

J. Tribol. 2017;139(4):041101-041101-10. doi:10.1115/1.4034955.

Ball piston is an essential design element in eccentric ball piston pump. The objective of this paper is to investigate the dynamic force and lubrication characteristics of the ball piston. In this study, a tribodynamic model of the ball piston is proposed. The model couples the elastohydrodynamic lubrication model of ball–ring pair and the elastohydrodynamic model of ball–cylinder pair with the dynamic model of the ball piston. The interaction between tribological behavior and dynamic performance and the effects of centrifugation and structural deformation of the ball piston are considered. The pressure distributions and film profiles of the ball–ring pair and ball–cylinder pair are calculated. The dynamic normal contact forces and friction forces are analyzed. The friction torque loss and mechanical efficiency of the whole pump are obtained by combing the tribodynamic model of the ball piston with a simplified friction torque model of cylinder-valve shaft pair. A test bench is established for validating the simulation results. The results show that the normal contact force of the ball–ring pair waves in each stroke, and in discharge stroke, the contact force is much bigger than that in suction stoke because of loading force, while the friction force changes very little for the ball sliding in the outer ring. Comparing with the average friction force of the ball–ring pair, the average friction force of the ball–cylinder pair is small, which reflects that the ball–ring pair is more prone to wear. For the ball–ring friction pair, when the load increases, the secondary contact pressure peak appears, the profile of film presents a horseshoe shape, and the classical shrinkage appears at the outlet of contact region. For the ball–cylinder pair, the film pits and the contact pressure jumps at the entrance of contact region for the heavy load and the high shear stain of film. In addition, the friction torque presents a nonlinear growth trend with the increasing working pressure

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Coatings and Solid Lubricants

J. Tribol. 2017;139(4):041301-041301-6. doi:10.1115/1.4034766.

This paper compares the tribological properties of transmission oil dispersed with molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanoparticles. Lubricant samples are prepared by dispersing MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles in 0.5 wt.% in transmission oil. The nanoparticles are stabilized in the lubricant by surface modification with surfactant SPAN 80. The stability of the lubricant in terms of size variation of dispersed nanoparticles is evaluated using particle size analyzer. The antiwear, antifriction, and extreme pressure (EP) properties are tested on a four-ball wear tester and a comparison is made to assess the relative performance of MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles. The friction and wear characteristics of lubricant dispersed with nanoparticles are strongly dependent upon the load taken into consideration. The lubricant dispersed with WS2 nanoparticles gave higher weld load and load wear index (LWI) than that of lubricant dispersed with MoS2 nanoparticles. The metallographic studies show that under high load conditions, the WS2 nanoparticles deposit more than MoS2 nanoparticles, thereby giving better performance at higher load conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Contact Mechanics

J. Tribol. 2017;139(4):041401-041401-10. doi:10.1115/1.4034767.

This paper presents a cubic model for the sphere–flat elastic–plastic contact without adhesion. In the cubic model, the applied load and the contact area are described by the cubic polynomial functions of the displacement to the power of 1/2 during loading and unloading, and the applied load is also expressed as the cubic polynomial function of the contact area to the power of 1/3 during loading. Utilizing these cubic polynomial functions, the elastic–plastic load (EPL) index, which is defined by the ratio between the dissipated energy due to plastic deformations and the work done to deform the sphere during loading, is calculated analytically. The calculated EPL index is just the ratio between the residue displacement after unloading and the maximum elastic–plastic displacement after loading. Using the cubic model, this paper extends the Johnson–Kendall–Roberts (JKR) model from the elastic regime to the elastic–plastic regime. Introducing the Derjaguin–Muller–Toporov (DMT) adhesion, the unified elastic–plastic adhesion model is obtained and compared with the simplified analytical model (SAM) and Kogut–Etsion (KE) model.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Friction and Wear

J. Tribol. 2017;139(4):041601-041601-5. doi:10.1115/1.4035014.

The effect of graphite (Gr) content on tribological performance of copper-matrix composites against H13 steel was investigated using a pin-on-disk test in the range of 3.14–47.1 m/s. The composites with different weight fractions of Gr (up to 18%) were fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. The results showed that the friction coefficient and wear rate generally decreased with the increase in Gr content. However, the friction coefficient and wear rate differ at various speeds. At 200 and 500 r/min, the friction coefficient and wear rate kept lower with the increase in Gr content, because the third body of Cu–Al–3%Gr specimen had strong fluidity and plasticity. By contrast, the particle third body of Cu–Al–12%Gr specimen, which contained higher content of Gr, could roll easily. Increased Gr feeding to the third body was reasonable for the decreasing of friction coefficient and wear with the increasing of the amount of Gr content at the speed in the range of 1000–2000 r/min. Under the high-speed, the friction coefficient showed slight change because the friction temperature induced all the third bodies to extend and flow effortlessly without componential influence. However, wear decreased significantly because the third body possessed more metal, which favored attachment to the counter disk.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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