This research is aimed to study the variations in the biomechanical behavior of bone and bone tissues with osteoporosis and bone tumors. Osteoporosis and bone tumors reduce the mechanical strength of bone, which creates a greater risk of fracture. In the United States alone, ten million individuals, eight million of whom are women, are estimated to already have osteoporosis, and almost 34 million more are estimated to have low bone mass (osteopenia) placing them at increased risk for osteoporosis. World Health Organization defines osteopenia, as a bone density between one and two and a half standard deviations (SD) below the bone density of a normal young adult. (Osteoporosis is defined as 2.5 SD or more below that reference point.). Together, osteoporosis and osteopenia are expected to affect an estimated 52 million women and men age 50 and older by 2010, and 61 million by 2020. The current medical cost of osteoporosis total is nearly about $18 billion in the U.S. each year. There is a dearth of literature that addresses the effects of osteoporosis on bone tissue properties. Furthermore, there are few studies published related to the effect of bone tumors such as Adamantinoma of long bones, Aneurysmal bone cyst, Hemangioma and others on overall behavior of bone. To understand the variations in bio-mechanical properties of internal tissues of bone with osteoporosis and bone tumor, a 2D finite element (FE) model of bone is developed using ANSYS 9.0 ® (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA). Trabecular bone is modeled using hexagonal and voronoi cellular structure. This finite element model is subjected to change in BVF (bone volume fraction) and bone architecture caused by osteoporosis. The bone tumor is modeled as finer multi-cellular structure and the effects of its size, location, and property variation of tumor on overall bone behavior are studied. Results from this analysis and comparative data are used to determine behavior of bone and its tissue over different stage of osteoporosis and bone tumor. Results indicate that both bone tumor and osteoporosis significantly change the mechanical properties of the bone. The results show that osteoporosis increases the bone tissue stiffness significantly as BVF reduces. Bone tissue stiffness is found to increase by 80 percent with nearly 55 percent reduction of BVF. The results and methods developed in this research can be implemented to monitor variation in bio-mechanical properties of bone up to tissue level during medication or to determine type and time for need of external support such as bracing.
Effect of Bone Tumor and Osteoporosis on Mechanical Properties of Bone and Bone Tissue Properties: A Finite Element Study
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Gohil, VP, Canavan, PK, & Nayeb-Hashemi, H. "Effect of Bone Tumor and Osteoporosis on Mechanical Properties of Bone and Bone Tissue Properties: A Finite Element Study." Proceedings of the ASME 2007 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 10: Mechanics of Solids and Structures, Parts A and B. Seattle, Washington, USA. November 11–15, 2007. pp. 947-949. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2007-42389
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