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research-article  
Carlton J. Reeves, Arpith Siddaiah and Pradeep L. Menezes
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042872
The sustainability of biolubricants as green alternatives for industrial and machinery lubrication is questionable due to their unreliable oxidative stability, high pour point, and easy accumulation of contaminants that affect their tribological performance. Bio-based ionic liquid (IL) lubricants, which are environmentally friendly liquid state salts have been shown to overcome these concerns related to conventional biolubricants. To understand the tribological performance and industrial feasibility of IL lubricants, the present study investigated the effect of ILs with various anion-cation moieties on their tribological performance and scaled their friction and wear behaviors against conventional biolubrincats, and petroleum-based oils. The study investigated both bio- and non-bio-based ILs, and among the ILs investigated, P666,14Saccharinate, P666,14Salicyate, and P666,14Benzoate were found to have superior tribological properties. The presence of large alkyl cation chain length and large aromatic anion ring size in ILs can effectively reduce friction and wear. The study details the mechanism by which the structural combinations of anion and cation in IL define the tribological behavior of the bulk IL. Additionally, the study also highlights the environmental benign nature of IL lubricants for possible industrial applications.
TOPICS: Friction, Wear, Sustainability, Tribology, Lubricants, Petroleum, Chain, Stability, Lubrication, Machinery
research-article  
Turup Pandurangan Mohan and Krishnan Kanny
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042873
The objective of this work is to understand the tribological properties of untreated and surface treated natural fiber reinforced composites. The naturally available banana plant fibers were treated with nanoclay particles and this treated fibers were then reinforced in an epoxy polymer to form composites. Short untreated banana fiber (UT-BF) and nanoclay infused banana fiber (NC-BF) reinforced composites with fiber concentration ranging from 20 wt.% to 60 wt.% was prepared by vacuum resin infusion processing method. The friction and wear properties of NC-BF reinforced composites were compared with UT-BF reinforced composites. The result indicate that the NC-BF reinforced composites has shown improved friction and wear properties. Microscopy examination revealed that NC-BF reinforced composites were able to form a stable transfer layer between wear test specimen wear surface and counter face, resulting in improved wear properties. The nanoclay particles also induces increased hardness and friction to the composites and improving the braking properties.
TOPICS: Composite materials, Epoxy resins, Fibers, Epoxy adhesives, Tribology, Nanoclays, Wear, Friction, Particulate matter, Vacuum, Fiber reinforced composites, Polymers, Microscopy, Braking, Resins, Wear testing
research-article  
Chaoming Wang, Xinran Zhang, Wenbing Jia, Qiaoyuan Deng and Yongxiang Leng
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042768
This study described the synthesis and the tribological properties of surface modified Field's alloy nanoparticles, which was prepared by a facile one-step nanoemulsion method and using ethyl carbamate as surfactant, as additives in liquid poly-alfa-olefin (PAO) oil. The size and morphology of nanoparticles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The zeta potential, viscosity and stability properties of the surface modified nanoparticles suspended in PAO oil (called nanofluid) with different mass concentration were measured by a viscometer and Zeta potential analyzer, respectively. The tribological properties of the nanofluid are tested by a ball to disk wear and friction machine. Compared to pure PAO oil, the results showed that the nanofluid have better lubricating behaviors. When the mass concentration of modified nanoparticles was 0.08 wt%, both of the friction coefficient and the wear scar diameter were smallest.
TOPICS: Tribology, Alloys, Nanoparticles, Nanofluids, Friction, Wear, Ethyl compounds, Machinery, Surface properties, Disks, Viscosity, Surfactants, Transmission electron microscopy, Stability
research-article  
Changrui Bai, Dezhi Zheng, Robert Hure, Ramy Saleh, Nicolas Carvajal and Gerald Morrison
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042773
Electric submersible pumps (ESPs) provide artificial lift within oil wells. ESPs commonly fail from mechanical vibrations that increase as bearing clearances increase from debris, gas, and liquid pumped through the ESP. In order to understand journal bearing wear within an ESP, three stages of a mixed flow electric submersible pump were subjected to hydraulic fracture sand slurry in water. One hundred seventeen hours were conducted with sand and water, followed by 68 hours with air added at 15% inlet gas volume fraction. The journal bearings were severely worn by the end of testing, and pump vibrations increased with increased bearing clearances. Bearing vibrations and clearances became significantly larger than the impeller labyrinth seal vibrations and clearances, indicating the labyrinth seals became the dominant rotor support once the bearings were worn. Adding air increased the wear and rotor vibration orbit variability. Rotor vibration orbits were entirely independent of gas void fraction by the end of testing, indicating the lubricant composition no longer directly impacted vibrations. Fine axial cracks from heat checking were observed on the journal of the bearings. Results indicate that controlling journal bearing wear is a critical factor for increasing operating lifetimes. Alternative bearing geometry and materials should be investigated to prevent the occurrence of three-body abrasion, limit the resultant wear rate from three-body abrasion, and limit damage from heat checking.
TOPICS: Flow (Dynamics), Wear, Pumps, Submersibles, Journal bearings, Bearings, Vibration, Water, Testing, Fracture (Materials), Abrasion, Rotor vibration, Heat, Sands, Lubricants, Impellers, Rotors, Slurries, Oil wells, Geometry, Porosity, Damage
research-article  
Siripong Daocharoenporn, Mongkol Mongkolwongrojn, Shubhankar Kulkarni and Ahmed A. Shabana
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042658
In this investigation, computational multibody systems (MBS) algorithms are used to develop detailed railroad vehicle models for the prediction of the wear resulting from the pantograph/catenary dynamic interaction. The wear is predicted using MBS algorithms for different motion scenarios that include constant-speed curve negotiation, and acceleration and deceleration on a tangent (straight) track.The wear model used in this investigation accounts for the electrical and the mechanical effects. The nonlinear finite element (FE) absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF), which is suitable for implementation in MBS algorithms, is used to model the flexible catenary system, thereby eliminating the need for using incremental rotation procedures and co-simulation techniques. In order to obtain efficient solutions, the overhead contact line and the messenger wire, both are modeled using the gradient deficient ANCF cable element. The pantograph/catenary elastic contact formulation employed in this study allows for separation between the pantograph pan-head and the contact wire, and accounts for the effect of friction due to the sliding between the pantograph pan-head and the catenary cable. The approach proposed in this investigation can be used to evaluate the electrical contact resistance, contribution of the arcing resulting from the pan-head/catenary separation, mechanical and electrical wear contributions, and effect of the pantograph mechanism uplift force on the wear rate. Numerical results are presented and analyzed to examine the wear rates for different motion scenarios.
TOPICS: Wear, Algorithms, Multibody systems, Separation (Technology), Wire, Cables, Simulation, Mechanical properties, Finite element analysis, Vehicles, Railroads, Contact resistance, Curve negotiation, Rotation, Friction
research-article  
Xiaohui Lin, Ruiqi Wang, Shaowen Zhang, Chibin Zhang and Shuyun Jiang
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042760
The purpose of this study is to investigate cavitation bubbles evolution for the high speed water-lubricated spiral groove thrust bearing. A theoretical model of cavitation bubbles evolution considering multiple effects (interface, breakage and coalescence of bubbles) was established for the bearing. A high-speed experimental setup was developed to measure the bubbles distribution. The theoretical model is verified by the experimental data. The results show that the Boltzmann-type bubble transport equation can be used to describe the bubbles evolution of the bearing under the breakup and coalescence at high-speed conditions; the volume of the bubble group presents a skewed distribution in equilibrium; the number of small-sized bubbles is greater than that of large-sized bubbles at high rotational speed; the bubbles are mainly distributed at the inlets and outlets of spiral grooves; the bubble number density increases with the groove depth and spiral angle; more bubbles are generated near the outer diameter of the bearing. The study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for the bubbles evolution of the water-lubricated spiral groove bearing under high speeds.
TOPICS: Cavitation, Bubbles, Thrust bearings, Water, Bearings, Equilibrium (Physics), Density
research-article  
Hui Zhuang, Jianguo Ding, Peng Chen, Yu Chang, Xiaoyun Zeng, Hong Yang, Xingbao Liu and Wei Wei
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042657
The effects of the race surface waviness on the cage dynamics, including cage slip ratios, cage instabilities and time-averaged cage wear rates, in high-speed ball bearings are investigated. A dynamic model of high-speed ball bearings considering the cage effect and the race surface waviness is proposed. Based on the proposed dynamic model, the effects of the maximum wave amplitude (MWA) and the wave order (WO) of race surface waviness on cage slip ratio, cage instability and time-averaged cage wear rate are investigated. The results show that the race surface waviness has a great effect on the cage dynamics. The waviness would increase the random impacts between balls and cage pockets, and thus cause more instable motion of the cage. Although the ball skidding and the cage slip ratio decrease with the increase of MWA, the cage instability and the cage wear rate become severe when MWA increases. In addition, the effect of WO on cage dynamics is nonlinear. The current investigation could provide a theoretical tool for an in-depth understanding of the dynamics in a high-speed ball bearing.
TOPICS: Dynamics (Mechanics), Wear, Waves, Wave amplitude, Ball bearings, Thrust bearings, Dynamic models
research-article  
Chong-Chong Mao and Yu-Feng Li
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042679
SrSO4 ceramic was prepared by hot-pressed sintering and its friction behavior was investigated against Al2O3 ball under dry sliding condition from room temperature to 800°C. From room temperature to 400°C, the tribological properties of SrSO4 ceramic are quite poor with the friction coefficients of 0.65-0.83 and the wear rates of about 10−3 mm3/Nm. With the testing temperature increasing to 600°C and 800°C, a brittle to ductile transition of SrSO4 takes place because of the activated slip systems. The friction coefficient and wear rate of SrSO4 ceramic also obviously decrease to 0.37 and about 10−4 mm3/Nm at 800°C. The significant improvement of the tribological properties is ascribed to the formation of a smooth and continuous SrSO4 lubricating film with excellent ductility and low shear strength at elevated temperature. SrSO4 is considered to be a potential candidate for high temperature solid lubricant with excellent lubricity.
TOPICS: Temperature, Ceramics, Tribology, Friction, Wear, Sintering, Lubricants, Brittleness, Ductility, Testing, Shear strength, High temperature
research-article  
Victoria Burlakova, Alexander Tyurin, Ekaterina Drogan, Evgeniy Sadyrin, Tatyana Pirozhkova, Anastasiya Novikova and Maria Belikova
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042678
In our research we have focused on estimation of tribological and mechanical characteristics of self-organized copper film, formed through friction of brass-steel pair in aqueous solutions of carbolic acid. We have found out that self-organized copper film formed through friction interaction of pair brass-steel is nanostructural. The data obtained through indentation of self-organized copper films indicated size effect. With increasing load and contact area of interacting bodies, the coefficient of friction first drops sharply with increasing normal load, and then begins to grow. We have found out that adhesion component of friction contribute to friction coefficient at small loads. We have shown that hardness of self-organized copper ilms formed at friction in aqueous solutions of acids increase at shifting from acetic to caproic acid.
TOPICS: Mechanical properties, Friction, Copper, Stress, Brass (Metal), Steel, Adhesion, Tribology, Size effect
research-article  
Liming Chang and Yeau-Ren Jeng
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042659
This tech brief presents some basic theory and calculations to help assess the feasibility of surface-film lubricated dry skin pass of metal strips to enhance surface finish after cold-rolling operations. Results are presented of required rate of heat removal from the rolling apparatus and the maximum rise of roll surface temperature for steel and aluminum strips under various parametric conditions of practical interest. The theory and the calculation tool may be used to perform analyses with other material, geometry and operating parameters and to assist the design and development of surface-film lubricated dry skin-pass processes.
TOPICS: Cooling, Thin films, Cold rolling, Skin, Strips, Heat, Temperature, Aluminum, Steel, Finishes, Design, Geometry, Strip metal
research-article  
Khalida Akhtar, Abid Hussain, Muhammad Gul, Hina Khalid and Saniya
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042677
This study describes a facile synthesis of monodispersed fine particles of calcium carbonate from an abundant indigenous and economical source (quick lime) and its enhanced tribological performance as a green additive in commercial Lithium Grease (CLG). The effect of various experimental parameters on particle morphology was thoroughly examined and the conditions were optimized. The synthesized uniform particles were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, XRD and TG/DTA and their results confirmed the calcite structure of the synthesized particles. The friction and wear studies were carried out under the applied load of 0.863 N at an ambient temperature for 5 min. The tribological performance of various amounts (1-7%) of cubic-CaCO3 (CCC) particles in CLG showed that 5 wt.% of CCC was the optimum concentration as additive in the present case. For comparison purpose, commercial CaCO3 powder was used under the same conditions. Decrease in friction coefficient of the CLG was observed to be 33.4% and 16.4% for 5 wt.% CCC and commercial CaCO3 additives, respectively. The significantly enhanced anti-wear and anti-friction performance of the optimum CCC-CLG in comparison to the blank and commercial-CaCO3-additized CLG suggested that the CCC-CLG blend can be used as an economical, green and high-performance lubricant in the mechanical components.
TOPICS: Tribology, Lithium, Particulate matter, Friction, Wear, Temperature, Lubricants, Stress, Blanks
research-article  
Deepak K. Prajapati and Mayank Tiwari
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042676
Rolling contact fatigue is one of the major problems observed in gear mechanisms, which leads to high friction ultimately resulting in high energy consumption. This paper demonstrates the evolution of surface topography during running-in and subsequent rolling contact fatigue (RCF) tests under boundary or mixed-elastohydrodynamic lubrication regimes. The case-hardened discs of equal surface finish and hardness are used in the experiments, and the evolution of surface topography is investigated using a white light interferometer (WLI). Surface topography at different load stages is measured at three distinct points, on the disks and average roughness and topography parameters are reported. Semi-quantitative techniques are used to determine the asperity level parameters at different load stages. From the running-in experiment, it is found that running-in is a fast process where substantial change in surface topography occurs due to plastic deformation of most prominent asperity. From the rolling contact fatigue test (RCF) test, it is concluded that within range of the fatigue cycles, the RMS roughness (Sq) is negatively correlated with the summit radius (R), autocorrelation length (Sal) and positively correlated with summit density (Sds) and RMS slope (Sdq). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis reveal disappearance of grinding ridges, the formation of micro pits at very small scale and pit growth in sliding direction.
TOPICS: Rolling contact, Fatigue testing, Fatigue, Surface roughness, Stress, Disks, Cycles, Energy consumption, Finishes, Gears, Grinding, Density, Deformation, Friction, Lubrication, Scanning electron microscopes, Interferometers
research-article  
Linkai Niu
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042656
The effects of the race surface waviness on the cage dynamics, including cage slip ratios, cage instabilities and time-averaged cage wear rates, in high-speed ball bearings are investigated. A dynamic model of high-speed ball bearings considering the cage effect and the race surface waviness is proposed. Based on the proposed dynamic model, the effects of the maximum wave amplitude (MWA) and the wave order (WO) of race surface waviness on cage slip ratio, cage instability and time-averaged cage wear rate are investigated. The results show that the race surface waviness has a great effect on the cage dynamics. The waviness would increase the random impacts between balls and cage pockets, and thus cause more instable motion of the cage. Although the ball skidding and the cage slip ratio decrease with the increase of MWA, the cage instability and the cage wear rate become severe when MWA increases. In addition, the effect of WO on cage dynamics is nonlinear. The current investigation could provide a theoretical tool for an in-depth understanding of the dynamics in a high-speed ball bearing.
TOPICS: Dynamics (Mechanics), Simulation, Ball bearings, Wear, Dynamic models, Waves, Wave amplitude
research-article  
Mamoun Fellah and Linda Aissani
J. Tribol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038103
The aim of the present research was focused on the study of the effect of replacing vanadium by niobium and iron on the tribological behavior of Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIPed) titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) biomaterial, using a ball-on-disk type Oscillating tribometer, under wet conditions using physiological solution conditions (Ringer solution) in accordance with the ASTMG 99, ISO 7148-1:2012, and ASTM G 133–95 standards. The tests were carried out under a normal load of 6 N, with an AISI 52100 grade steel ball as a counter face. The morphological changes and structural evolution of the nanoparticle powders using different milling times (2, 6, 12 and 18 h) were studied. The morphological characterization indicated that the particle and crystallite size continuously decreases with increasing milling time to reach the lowest value of 4 nm at 18 hours milling. The friction coefficient and wear rate were lower in the samples milled at 18 h (0.226, 0.297 and 0.423) and (0.66 x10-2, 0.87x10-2 and 1.51x10-2 µm3.N-1.µm-1) for Ti-6Al-4Fe, Ti-6Al-4Nb and Ti-6Al-4V, respectively. This improvement in friction and wear resistance is attributed to the grain refinement at 18 hour milling. The Ti-6Al-4Fe samples showed good tribological performance for all milling times
TOPICS: Wear, Titanium alloys, Milling, Sliding friction, Biomedicine, Tribology, Friction, ASTM International, Tribometers, Wear resistance, Physiology, Stress, Nanoparticles, Disks, Iron, Steel, Particulate matter, Biomaterials

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