Design Innovation Paper

“Cenosphere–Molybdenum Disulfide”–New Filler–Lubricant Combination for Performance Synergism in Composite Friction Materials

[+] Author and Article Information
Rakesh K. Kachhap

Centre for Polymer Science and Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
New Delhi 110016, India

Bhabani K. Satapathy

Centre for Polymer Science and Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
New Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: bhabaniks@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received January 22, 2016; final manuscript received November 24, 2016; published online May 11, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Robert L. Jackson.

J. Tribol 139(5), 055001 (May 11, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: TRIB-16-1034; doi: 10.1115/1.4035347 History: Received January 22, 2016; Revised November 24, 2016

Short-fiber (e.g., steel wool, rock fibers, and kevlar) reinforced flyash cenosphere–molybdenum disulfide combination-filled phenolic composite materials for friction braking applications were developed and evaluated for their physical (density, void fraction, acetone extraction, and ash content), mechanical (hardness, compressibility, shear strength), and thermal characteristics (thermogravimetric analysis (thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential thermo gravimetry). Performance correlations between thermomechanical characteristics and friction braking data obtained from Krauss friction testing machine is attempted. The frictional fade (μF) and recovery (μR) behavior vis-a-vis amplitude of friction fluctuations (μmaxμmin) performance were observed to be enhanced due to the incorporation of “cenosphere–molybdenum disulfide” combination. The enhanced wear resistance was attributed to the lower temperature sensitivity of posttemperature degradation kinetics. Analysis of friction and wear data indicated μF and intrinsic material coefficients to be major determinants for μP and wear, respectively. Our study demonstrates the performance synergism due to the incorporation of cenosphere–molybdenum disulfide as the hybrid “filler–lubricant” combination in composite materials for friction braking application.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of Krauss testing machine for triboperformance evaluation of brake-pads

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Fig. 2

Variation of the composites in terms of temperature: (a) storage modulus, (b) loss modulus, and (c) loss-tangent (tan δ)

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Fig. 3

Frictional response of the composites plotted against: (a) coefficient of friction, (b) rise in temperature, (c) number of brakings, and (d) μp (μ-performance), μF (μ-fade), and μR (μ-recovery)

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Fig. 4

(a) Fade and recovery performance of the various composites, (b) frictional fluctuation and rise in temperature against the composites, and (c) temperature fluctuation versus frictional fluctuations of the composites

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Fig. 5

(a) Wear histogram of different composites and (b) TGA of the frictional composites (i) before braking and (ii) after braking

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Fig. 6

SEM micrographs of friction composites at (a) low magnifications (×300) and (b) high magnifications (×1000)

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Fig. 7

EDX analysis of friction composites



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