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Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Effect of Heat Treatment on Tribological Properties of Ni-B Coatings on Low Carbon Steel: Wear Maps and Wear Mechanisms

[+] Author and Article Information
Sandra Arias

Centro de Investigación, Innovación y Desarrollo de Materiales—CIDEMAT,
Universidad de Antioquia UdeA,
Calle 70 N° 52 – 21,
Medellín,
Antioquia 050010, Colombia
e-mail: smilena.arias@udea.edu.co

Juan G. Castaño

Centro de Investigación, Innovación y Desarrollo de Materiales—CIDEMAT,
Universidad de Antioquia UdeA,
Calle 70 N° 52 – 21, Medellín,
Antioquia 050010, Colombia
e-mail: juan.castano@udea.edu.co

Esteban Correa

Grupo de Investigación Materiales con Impacto –MAT&MPAC,
Facultad de Ingenierías,
Universidad de Medellín,
Carrera 87 N° 30 – 65, Medellín,
Antioquia 050026, Colombia
e-mail: escorrea@udem.edu.co

Félix Echeverría

Centro de Investigación, Innovación y Desarrollo de Materiales—CIDEMAT,
Universidad de Antioquia UdeA,
Calle 70 N° 52 – 21, Medellín,
Antioquia 050026, Colombia
e-mail: felix.echeverria@udea.edu.co

Maryory Gómez

Centro de Investigación, Innovación y Desarrollo de Materiales—CIDEMAT,
Universidad de Antioquia UdeA,
Calle 70 N° 52 – 21, Medellín,
Antioquia 050026, Colombia
e-mail: maryory.gomez@udea.edu.co

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Tribology. Manuscript received April 3, 2019; final manuscript received May 27, 2019; published online June 12, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Yi Zhu.

J. Tribol 141(9), 091601 (Jun 12, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-19-1145; doi: 10.1115/1.4043906 History: Received April 03, 2019; Accepted May 28, 2019

Among the alternatives for using low-carbon steel in parts with heavy wear, as gears and bearing surfaces, Ni-B electroless coatings deposited on these steels are considered due to their wear resistance. Wear maps, elaborated from friction or wear results found for different evaluated conditions, are a very useful tool for the selection of materials based on tribological properties. However, wear maps for electroless Ni-B coatings are very scarce. In this work, dry sliding wear tests with different loads and sliding velocities were performed on Ni-B electroless coatings applied on AISI/SAE 1018 steel, with and without heat treatment at 450 °C for 1 h, with the aim of determining the effect of the heat treatment on the friction coefficients and wear rates. Contour and profile maps, and finally friction and wear maps, were constructed for each of the coatings evaluated. The coating properties before and after the heat treatment were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scratch tests, nanoindentation, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Sliding wear tracks were studied using SEM, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Good agreement between experimental and predicted values was found in friction and wear maps. Wear mechanisms change from flattening in less severe conditions to abrasion in more severe conditions, besides spalling and adhesive wear in untreated coatings. Moreover, abrasive wear is lower in heat-treated coating than in untreated coating.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Plan-view and cross-sections of the coatings (a, b) before and (c, d) after heat treatment

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Fig. 2

XRD spectra for Ni-B coatings before and after heat treatment at 450 °C during 1 h

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Fig. 3

DSC thermogram for heat-treated Ni-B coating

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Fig. 4

Scratch test track on a Ni-B coating before heat treatment

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Fig. 5

Scratch test track on a Ni-B coating after heat treatment

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Fig. 6

Friction coefficients for steel substrate and Ni-B coatings, evaluated at 5 N and 0.012 m/s

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Fig. 7

Countour maps and profile graphs for Ni-B coatings without heat treatment: (a) friction coefficient and (b) wear rate

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Fig. 8

Countour maps and profile graphs for Ni-B coatings with heat treatment: (a) friction coefficient and (b) wear rate

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Fig. 9

Friction maps for Ni-B coatings as a (a) function of load and (b) sliding speed

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Fig. 10

Wear maps for Ni-B coatings as a (a) function of load and (b) sliding speed

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Fig. 11

SEM micrographs of wear tracks on the surface of Ni-B coatings: (a) without heat treatment, tested at 0.012 m/s and 5 N; (b) without heat treatment, tested at 0.0089 m/s and 15 N; (c) without heat treatment, tested at 0.012 m/s and 25 N; (d) after heat treatment, tested at 0.012 m/s and 25 N; (e) without heat treatment, tested at 0.005 m/s and 25 N; and (f) after heat treatment, tested at 0.005 m/s and 25 N

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Fig. 12

Micro-Raman spectra from a dark zone in the wear track on heat-treated Ni-B coating, evaluated at 25 N and 0.005 m/s

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