Direct Observations of the Chip-Tool Interface in the Low Speed Cutting of Pure Metals

[+] Author and Article Information
V. Madhavan

Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260e-mail: vis.madhavan@wichita.edu

S. Chandrasekar

School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907e-mail: chandy@ecn.purdue.edu

T. N. Farris

School of Aeronautics and Astronautical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907e-mail: farrist@ecn.purdue.edu

J. Tribol 124(3), 617-626 (May 31, 2002) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1398546 History: Received March 16, 1999; Revised March 15, 2001; Online May 31, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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Stress distributions at the chip-tool interface: (a) proposed by Zorev 24; (b) obtained by photoelastic experiments of Bagchi and Wright 20; and (c) photoelastic experiments of Chandrasekaran and Kapoor 13.
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Schematic of the rake face showing the extent of the three distinct zones comprising the chip-tool contact area and (a) classification adopted by Doyle et al. 15 and (b) classification suggested by the present work
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Schematic of the experimental setup
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Relative positions of the glass tool and the microscope for observing the rake face through the transparent cutting tool
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Photographic sequence of the typical evolution of the chip-tool contact observed through a glass tool. CC—cutting edge, ff—edge of contact, abde—region of intimate sliding contact (zone I).
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Sequence of frames captured from a video recording of the typical evolution of the chip-tool contact as observed through a sapphire tool
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Illustration of sliding contact in zone I—video frames pointing out movement of a “dot” (inhomogeneity) between successive frames. The direction of chip flow is marked alongside the pictures. The lower half of the frames is a mirror image of the upper half about the cutting edge CC. The chip flows away from the cutting edge on both the sides. Cutting speed=0.5 mm/s; time between frames=2/3 s.
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Replication of tool features on the chip. Optical micrographs of (a) bumps (seen at arrows) on the chip undersurface and (b) pits on the tool surface. The bumps were seen to be exact replicas of the depressions, see also profilometer trace of bumps in Fig. 9. CC is the cutting edge. Note that these photographs were taken at the end of a cut.
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Profilometer trace of the bumps on the chip undersurface shown in Fig. 8(a)
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Photograph of the typical lead chip produced by the cutting process showing the decreasing curvature of the chip as cutting progresses. The initial curvature of the chip is quite high, at location A. As cutting progresses, the curvature decreases and the chip becomes almost straight, at location B.
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Surface profiles of the rake face along lines parallel to the cutting edge in (a) zone I, (b) zone IIa, and (c) zone IIb. Note that the vertical magnification in (c) is greater than that in (a) and (b). The locations of these traces are shown schematically in the inset.
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Rake face of the glass tool after intermittent cutting showing translucent deposit in region abde (as viewed through the tool)
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Variation in Fc,Ft and the coefficient of friction at the chip-tool interface due to increasing sticking as cutting progresses
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Schematic of stresses on the chip



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