Application of Atomic Force Microscopy to the Study of Lubricant Additive Films

[+] Author and Article Information
K. Topolovec Mikložič

H. A. Spikes

Tribology Section Imperial College Medicine London Exhibition Road, SW7 2AZ, London, United Kingdom

J. Tribol 127(2), 405-415 (Apr 07, 2005) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1843159 History: Received March 21, 2003; Revised October 09, 2003; Online April 07, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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Grahic Jump Location
AFM topography maps from rubbed MTM disk surfaces using ZDDP2 solution. Two different scan areas are shown.
Grahic Jump Location
AFM topography maps from rubbed HFRR disk surfaces using ZDDP1 solution. Two different scan areas are shown.
Grahic Jump Location
AFM topography maps from rubbed HFRR disk surfaces using ZDDP2 solution. Two different scan areas are shown.
Grahic Jump Location
Dependence on load of lateral force averaged over 1 μm×1 μm regions of the wear scars on HFRR disks rubbed in two ZDDP solutions, measured using AFM with glass sphere tip at a scan speed of 10 μm/s
Grahic Jump Location
Force-distance curves on ZDDP1 and ZDDP2 films on rubbed HFRR disks immersed in original test oils. Glass sphere tip with approach and retract speed 1 μm/s.
Grahic Jump Location
MTM test on ZDDP1 solution at 100°C showing how friction versus speed behavior varies during prolonged rubbing in mixed film conditions
Grahic Jump Location
AFM topography maps from rubbed MTM disk surfaces using ZDDP1 solution. Two different scan areas are shown.
Grahic Jump Location
AFM topography maps and corresponding line profiles taken transverse to the wear scars for (a) MoDTC and (b) MoDTC/ZDDP2 solution films on rubbed HFRR substrate immersed in hexadecane
Grahic Jump Location
Topography and simultaneously obtained lateral force maps for MoDTC film on rubbed HFRR substrate immersed in hexadecane. (Light shading in lateral force images indicates high and dark shading low lateral force).
Grahic Jump Location
(a) Lateral force map for MoDTC on rubbed HFRR substrate immersed in hexadecane. (Light shading indicates high and dark shading low lateral force). (b) Histogram of lateral force value variation over the map.
Grahic Jump Location
Film thickness versus entrainment speed plots for OCP and OCP-D at two test temperatures
Grahic Jump Location
Friction coefficient versus entrainment speed plots for OCP and OCP-D at two test temperatures
Grahic Jump Location
AFM lateral force versus load averaged over 1 μm×1 μm scan area of OCP and OCP-D on an unrubbed HFRR disk surface using spherical glass tip at a scan speed of 10 μm/s. (The lines joining the points are intended as a guide for the eye only)
Grahic Jump Location
AFM approach and retreat force-distance curves for OCP and OCP-D solutions at various normal speeds using a spherical glass tip
Grahic Jump Location
Theoretical dependence of minimum hydrodynamic film thickness on load for a lubricated spherical glass tip-flat substrate contact with lubricants of two different viscosities



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