A Review of Dry Particulate Lubrication: Powder and Granular Materials

[+] Author and Article Information
Emmanuel Y. A. Wornyoh, Venkata K. Jasti

Mechanical Engineering Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890

C. Fred Higgs1

Mechanical Engineering Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890higgs@andrew.cmu.edu


Corresponding author.

J. Tribol 129(2), 438-449 (Jan 09, 2007) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2647859 History: Received April 10, 2006; Revised January 09, 2007

Research efforts related to dry particulates in sliding contacts are reviewed. In the tribology community, there are primarily two types of dry particulate lubricants that are studied—granular and powder. Granular lubricants usually refer to dry, cohesionless, hard particles that transfer momentum and accommodate surface velocity differences through shearing and rolling at low shear rates, and collisions at high shear rates. Powder lubricants refer to dry, cohesive, soft particles that accommodate surface velocity differences mostly by adhering to surfaces and shearing in the bulk medium, in a manner similar to hydrodynamic fluids. Spanning the past five decades, this review proposes a classification system for the scientific works in the dry particulate tribology literature in terms of theory, experiments, and numerical simulations. It also suggests that these works can be further categorized based on their tribosystem geometry—annular, parallel, and converging.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

(a) Powder lubrication (31) and (b) Granular lubrication (103)

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Figure 2

Sliding contact geometries: (a) annular, (b) parallel, and (c) converging

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Figure 3

Parallel section of an annular-shaped shear cell

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Figure 4

Catalog of representative papers on dry particulate lubrication

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Figure 5

Graphical representation of solid lubrication papers

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Figure 6

Variables and properties that affect powder lubricants (6)

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Figure 7

Powder lubricant as a third body (2)

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Figure 8

Schematic of roughness factors. Roughness factors R are defined as (a) the fraction of lateral momentum imparted by the surface and (b) the fraction of granular particles that fits between wall disks

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Figure 9

Wheel roughness on in annular GSC: from top to bottom, R=0–1(28)

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Figure 10

Compacted powder wear simulation (70)

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Figure 11

Summary diagram of dry particulate tribology research for powder (cohesive) and granular (cohesionless) particles



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