Research Papers: Hydrodynamic Lubrication

Journal Bearing Stiffness and Damping Coefficients Using Nanomagnetorheological Fluids and Stability Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
D. A. Bompos, P. G. Nikolakopoulos

Machine Design Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering
and Aeronautics,
University of Patras,
Patras 26500, Greece

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received October 18, 2013; final manuscript received May 19, 2014; published online June 19, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Luis San Andres.

J. Tribol 136(4), 041704 (Jun 19, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-13-1218; doi: 10.1115/1.4027748 History: Received October 18, 2013; Revised May 19, 2014

The integrity and reliability of a rotor depend significantly on the dynamic characteristics of its bearings. Bearing design has evolved in many ways in order to achieve higher damping and stiffness. A promising field in terms of vibrations control and overall performance improvement for the journal bearings is the use of smart lubricants. Smart lubricants are fluids with controllable properties. A suitable excitation, such as an electric or a magnetic field, is applied to the lubricant volume and changes its properties. Magnetorheological (MR) fluids consist one category of lubricants with controllable properties. Magnetic particles inside the MR fluid volume are coerced by a magnetic field. These particles form chains which hinder the flow of the base fluid and alter its apparent viscosity. According to the magnetic particle size, there are two subcategories of magnetorheological fluids: the regular MR fluids with particles sizing some tens of micrometers and the nanomagnetorheological (NMR) fluids with a particle size of a few nanometers. The change of magnetorheological fluid's viscosity is an efficient way of control of the dynamic characteristics of the journal bearing system. In this work, the magnetic field intensity inside the volume of lubricant is calculated through finite element analysis. The calculated value of the magnetic field intensity is used to define the apparent viscosity of both the MR and the NMR fluids. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, the pressure developed inside the journal bearing is found. Through this simulation with the use of a suitable algorithm, the stiffness and damping coefficients are calculated and stability charts of Newtonian, MR, and NMR fluid are presented and discussed.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Hung, N. Q., and Bok, C. S., 2012, “Optimal Design of a T-Shaped Drum-Type Brake for Motorcycle Utilizing Magnetorheological Fluid,” Mech. Based Des. Struct. Mach., 40(2), pp. 153–162. [CrossRef]
Wang, D., and Liao, W., 2011, “Magnetorheological Fluid Dampers: A Review of Parametric Modelling,” Smart Mater. Struct., 20(2), p. 023001. [CrossRef]
Wiltsie, N., Lanzetta, M., and Iagnemma, K., 2012, “A Controllably Adhesive Climbing Robot Using Magnetorheological Fluid,” 2012 IEEE International Conference on Technologies for Practical Robot Applications (TePRA), Woburn, MA, Apr. 23–24, IEEE, pp. 91–96.
Hesselbach, J., and Abel-Keilhack, C., 2003, “Active Hydrostatic Bearing With Magnetorheological Fluid,” J. Appl. Phys., 93(10), pp. 8441–8443. [CrossRef]
Šafařík, I., Horská, K., and Šafaříková, M., 2011, “Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedicine,” Intracellular Delivery, A.Prokop, ed., Springer, Dordrecht , The Netherlands, pp. 363–372.
Fijalkowski, B., 2011, “A Novel Internal Combustion Engine Without Crankshaft and Connecting Rod Mechanisms,” J. Kones Powertrain Transp., 18(4), pp. 91–104.
Zhang, H. H., Xu, H. P., Liao, C. R., and Deng, Z. X., 2012, “Dynamic Response of Magnetorheological Fluid Damper for Automotive Suspension and the Influence by Long-Time Standing-Still,” Appl. Mech. Mater., 105, pp. 1689–1692. [CrossRef]
Chaudhuri, A., Wang, G., Wereley, N., Tasovksi, V., and Radhakrishnan, R., 2005, “Substitution of Micron by Nanometer Scale Powders in Magnetorheological Fluids,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B, 19(07n09), pp. 1374–1380. [CrossRef]
Vékás, L., 2009, “Ferrofluids and Magnetorheological Fluids,” Adv. Sci. Technol., 54, pp. 127–136. [CrossRef]
Kim, I., Song, K., Park, B., Choi, B., and Choi, H. J., 2011, “Nano-Sized Fe Soft-Magnetic Particle and Its Magnetorheology,” Colloid Polym. Sci., 289(1), pp. 79–83. [CrossRef]
Lopez-Lopez, M., Bossis, G., Duran, J., Gomez-Ramirez, A., Kuzhir, P., Iskakova, L., and Zubarev, Y. A., 2013, “Inversion of Magnetic Forces Between Microparticles and Its Effect on the Magnetorheology of Extremely Bidisperse Magnetic Fluids,” J. Nanofluids, 2(2), pp. 85–93. [CrossRef]
Shafrir, S. N., Romanofsky, H. J., Skarlinski, M., Wang, M., Miao, C., Salzman, S., Chartier, T., Mici, J., Lambropoulos, J. C., and Shen, R., 2009, “Zirconia-Coated Carbonyl-Iron-Particle-Based Magnetorheological Fluid for Polishing Optical Glasses and Ceramics,” Appl. Opt., 48(35), pp. 6797–6810. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Li, Q., Yu, G., Liu, S., and Zheng, S., 2012, “Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Structure Interaction Techniques for Calculating the 3D Transient Flow of Journal Bearings Coupled With Rotor Systems,” Chin. J. Mech. Eng., 25(5), pp. 926–932. [CrossRef]
Chouksey, M., Dutt, J. K., and Modak, S. V., 2012, “Modal Analysis of Rotor-Shaft System Under the Influence of Rotor-Shaft Material Damping and Fluid Film Forces,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 48, pp. 81–93. [CrossRef]
San Andrés, L., 2012, “Extended Finite Element Analysis of Journal Bearing Dynamic Forced Performance to Include Fluid Inertia Force Coefficients,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2012-87713. [CrossRef]
Kirk, R., Alsaeed, A., and Gunter, E., 2007, “Stability Analysis of a High-Speed Automotive Turbocharger,” Tribol. Trans., 50(3), pp. 427–434. [CrossRef]
Forte, P., Paterno, M., and Rustighi, E., 2004, “A Magnetorheological Fluid Damper for Rotor Applications,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., 10(3), pp. 175–182. [CrossRef]
Urreta, H., Leicht, Z., Sanchez, A., Agirre, A., Kuzhir, P., and Magnac, G., 2010, “Hydrodynamic Bearing Lubricated With Magnetic Fluids,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 21(15), pp. 1491–1499. [CrossRef]
Schultz, W. W., Han, H.-C., Boyd, J. P., and Schumack, M., 1997, “An Analysis of the Oil-Whirl Instability,” Proceedings of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics Meeting Abstracts.
Tichy, J. A., 1991, “Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory for the Bingham Plastic Flow Model,” J. Rheol., 35(4), pp. 477–496. [CrossRef]
Gunter, E. J., 2003, “Lund's Contribution to Rotor Stability: The Indispensable and Fundamental Basis of Modern Compressor Design,” ASME J. Vib. Acoust., 125(4), pp. 462–470. [CrossRef]
Gertzos, K., Nikolakopoulos, P., and Papadopoulos, C., 2008, “CFD Analysis of Journal Bearing Hydrodynamic Lubrication by Bingham Lubricant,” Tribol. Int., 41(12), pp. 1190–1204. [CrossRef]
Odenbach, S., 2009, Colloidal Magnetic Fluids: Basics, Development and Application of Ferrofluids, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Glienicke, J., Han, D. C., and Leonhard, M., 1980, “Practical Determination and Use of Bearing Dynamic Coefficients,” Tribol. Int., 13(6), pp. 297–309. [CrossRef]
Shenoy, S. B., Pai, R., Rao, D., and Pai, R. B., 2009, “Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis of Full 360 Journal Bearing Using CFD and FSI Techniques,” World J. Model. Simul., 5(4), pp. 315–320.
Bompos, D. A., and Nikolakopoulos, P. G., 2011, “CFD Simulation of Magnetorheological Fluid Journal Bearings,” Simul. Modell. Pract. Theory, 19(4), pp. 1035–1060. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Geometry and operational characteristics of magnetorheological fluid film journal bearing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The boundary conditions of the CFD model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Validation of the CFD model toward the work of Gertzos et al. [23]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Boundary conditions of the magnetostatic simulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The bearing stiffness and damping coefficients

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Damping coefficients comparison between Ref. [25] and current work

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Disturbance imposed in the velocity of the journal for the calculation of the damping coefficients

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The simulation of the magnetic field inside the journal bearing system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Relative eccentricity ε over Sommerfeld number for L/D = 0.5 with Newtonian, MR, and NMR fluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Stiffness coefficients for L/D = 0.5 using a Newtonian lubricant

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Stiffness coefficient with L/D = 0.5 using MR fluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Stiffness coefficients for L/D = 0.5 using NMR fluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Damping coefficients for a bearing with L/D = 0.5 using Newtonian lubricant

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Damping coefficients for a bearing with L/D = 0.5 using MR fluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Damping coefficients for a bearing with L/D = 0.5 using NMR fluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Critical rotational velocity is depicted for all three fluids compared in this work over a range of Sommerfeld number values, L/D = 0.5 and I=300 A



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In