Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Bioderived Fuel Blend Dilution of Marine Engine Oil and Impact on Friction and Wear Behavior

[+] Author and Article Information
Oyelayo O. Ajayi

Energy Systems Division,
Argonne National Laboratory,
Argonne, IL 60439
e-mail: ajayi@anl.gov

Cinta Lorenzo-Martin, George Fenske

Energy Systems Division,
Argonne National Laboratory,
Argonne, IL 60439

John Corlett, Chris Murphy

Yamaha Motor Corp., USA
Kennesaw, GA 30144

Steve Przesmitzki

Fuels and Lube Technologies Program VTO,
Washington, DC 20585

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received March 21, 2015; final manuscript received September 29, 2015; published online November 4, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Satish V. Kailas. The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

J. Tribol 138(2), 021603 (Nov 04, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: TRIB-15-1089; doi: 10.1115/1.4031781 History: Received March 21, 2015; Revised September 29, 2015

To reduce the amount of petroleum-derived fuel used in vehicles and vessels powered by internal combustion engines (ICEs), the addition of bioderived fuel extenders is a common practice. Ethanol is perhaps the most common bioderived fuel used for blending, and butanol is being evaluated as a promising alternative. The present study determined the fuel dilution rate of three lubricating oils (pure gasoline (E0), gasoline–10% ethanol blend (E10), and gasoline–16% isobutanol blend (i-B16)) in a marine engine operating in on-water conditions with a start-and-stop cycle protocol. The level of fuel dilution increased with the number of cycles for all three fuels. The most dilution was observed with i-B16 fuel, and the least with E10 fuel. In all cases, fuel dilution substantially reduced the oil viscosity. The impacts of fuel dilution and the consequent viscosity reduction on the lubricating capability of the engine oil in terms of friction, wear, and scuffing prevention were evaluated by four different tests protocols. Although the fuel dilution of the engine oil had minimal effect on friction, because the test conditions were under the boundary lubrication regime, significant effects were observed on wear in many cases. Fuel dilution was also observed to reduce the load-carrying capacity of the engine oils in terms of scuffing load reduction.

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Fig. 2

Pictures of the pin-on-disk unidirectional sliding test rig (left) and test samples (right)

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Fig. 1

Variation of different engine parameters with time during on-water fuel dilution test

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Fig. 3

Fuel content of engine oil samples from on-water boat engine test

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Fig. 4

Viscosity of used oil samples from on-water boat engine test

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Fig. 5

(a) Friction variation with time during the start of test (speed ramp protocol) with fresh oil, (b) typical variation of friction with time for the entire test duration with fresh oil, and (c) friction variation with time during the end of test (final speed ramp) with fresh oil

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Fig. 6

Fiction variation during unidirectional sliding test with oil samples from engine tests operating with (a) butanol, (b) E0, and (c) E10 fuels

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Fig. 7

Average friction coefficient during unidirectional sliding in tests with different engine oil samples

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Fig. 8

Average friction coefficient during reciprocating sliding in tests with different engine oil samples

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Fig. 13

Average wear volume on the stationary ball during the four-ball wear test

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Fig. 14

Average scuffing load during the block-on-ring scuffing test

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Fig. 9

(a) Optical micrograph and (b) profilometry of wear track on cast iron flat specimen used in reciprocating sliding with fresh oil

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Fig. 10

(a) Optical micrograph and (b) profilometry of wear track on 52100 steel ball specimen used in reciprocating sliding with fresh oil

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Fig. 11

(a) Average ball wear volume in unidirectional sliding test with used oil from engine test and (b) average ball wear volume in reciprocating sliding test with used oil from engine test

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Fig. 12

(a) Optical micrograph and (b) profilometry of the wear scar from the stationary ball in the four-ball wear test with E10 diluted oil



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