Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Effect of Graphite Content on the Tribological Performance of Copper-Matrix Composites Under Different Friction Speeds

[+] Author and Article Information
Han Xiao-Ming, Gao Fei, Su Lin-Lin, Fu Rong, Zhang En

Continuous Extrusion Research Center,
Dalian Jiaotong University,
Dalian 116028, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received April 10, 2016; final manuscript received August 24, 2016; published online March 24, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Dae-Eun Kim.

J. Tribol 139(4), 041601 (Mar 24, 2017) (5 pages) Paper No: TRIB-16-1121; doi: 10.1115/1.4035014 History: Received April 10, 2016; Revised August 24, 2016

The effect of graphite (Gr) content on tribological performance of copper-matrix composites against H13 steel was investigated using a pin-on-disk test in the range of 3.14–47.1 m/s. The composites with different weight fractions of Gr (up to 18%) were fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. The results showed that the friction coefficient and wear rate generally decreased with the increase in Gr content. However, the friction coefficient and wear rate differ at various speeds. At 200 and 500 r/min, the friction coefficient and wear rate kept lower with the increase in Gr content, because the third body of Cu–Al–3%Gr specimen had strong fluidity and plasticity. By contrast, the particle third body of Cu–Al–12%Gr specimen, which contained higher content of Gr, could roll easily. Increased Gr feeding to the third body was reasonable for the decreasing of friction coefficient and wear with the increasing of the amount of Gr content at the speed in the range of 1000–2000 r/min. Under the high-speed, the friction coefficient showed slight change because the friction temperature induced all the third bodies to extend and flow effortlessly without componential influence. However, wear decreased significantly because the third body possessed more metal, which favored attachment to the counter disk.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kováčik, J. , Emmer, Š. , Bielek, J. , and Keleši, L. U. , 2008, “ Effect of Composition on Friction Coefficient of Cu–Graphite Composites,” Wear, 265(3–4), pp. 417–421. [CrossRef]
Cho, M. H. , Ju, J. , Kim, S. J. , and Jang, H. , 2006, “ Tribological Properties of Solid Lubricants (Graphite, sb2s3, mos2) for Automotive Brake Friction Materials,” Wear, 260(7–8), pp. 855–860. [CrossRef]
Ma, W. , and Lu, J. , 2011, “ Effect of Surface Texture on Transfer Layer Formation and Tribological Behaviour of Copper–Graphite Composite,” Wear, 270(3), pp. 218–229. [CrossRef]
Ertan, R. , and Yavuz, N. , 2011, “ The Effects of Graphite, Coke and ZnS on the Tribological and Surface Characteristics of Automotive Brake Friction Materials,” Ind. Lubr. Tribol., 63(4), pp. 245–253. [CrossRef]
Cao, H. Q. , Qian, Z, Y. , Zhang, L. , Xiao, J, K. , and Zhou, K, C. , 2014, “ Tribological Behavior of Cu Matrix Composites Containing Graphite and Tungsten Disulfide,” Tribol. Trans., 57(6), pp. 1037–1043. [CrossRef]
Oztürk, B. , Ztürk, S. O. , Adigüzel , and Adem, A. , 2013, “ Effect of Type and Relative Amount of Solid Lubricants and Abrasives on the Tribological Properties of Brake Friction Materials,” Tribol. Trans., 56(3), pp. 428–441. [CrossRef]
Baradeswaran, A. , and Elaya, P. A. , 2015, “ Effect of Graphite on Tribological and Mechanical Properties of AA7075 Composites,” Tribol. Trans., 58(1), pp. 1–6. [CrossRef]
Senthil, K. P. , Manisekar, K. , and Narayanasamy, R. , 2014, “ Experimental and Prediction of Abrasive Wear Behavior of Sintered Cu-SiC Composites Containing Graphite by Using Artificial Neural Networks,” Tribol. Trans., 57(3), pp. 455–471. [CrossRef]
Zhan, Y. Z. , Shi, X. B. , Deng, J. Q. , and Zhuang, Y. H. , 2005, “ Effect of Graphite on Friction and Wear Performance of Hybrid Reinforced Copper Matrix Composite Materials,” Guangxi Physics, 26(2), pp. 3–7.
Akhlaghi, F. , and Zare, B. A. , 2009, “ Influence of Graphite Content on the Dry Sliding and Oil Impregnated Sliding Wear Behavior of Al 2024–Graphite Composites Produced by In Situ Powder Metallurgy Method,” Wear, 266(1–2), pp. 37–45. [CrossRef]
Ghaderi, A. R. , Ahmadabadi, M. N. , and Ghasemi, H. M. , 2003, “ Effect of Graphite Morphologies on the Tribological Behavior of Austempered Cast Iron,” Wear, 255(2), pp. 410–416. [CrossRef]
Zabolotnyi, L. V. , Baranov, N. G. , Ageeva, V. S. , Nitskaya, A. I. , Mokrovetskaya, V. S. , and Ganusets, E. A. ,1992, “ Influence of Graphite Content on the Structure and Properties of Bronze-Graphite Materials,” Powder Metall. Metal Ceramics, 31(10), pp. 858–862. [CrossRef]
Unal, H. , and Mimaroglu, A. , 2012, “ Friction and Wear Performance of Polyamide 6 and Graphite and Wax Polyamide 6 Composites Under Dry Sliding Conditions,” Wear, 289, pp. 132–137. [CrossRef]
Prasad, B. K. , and Das, S. , 1991, “ The Significance of the Matrix Microstructure on the Solid Lubrication Characteristics of Graphite Aluminum Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng., 144(1–2), pp. 229–235. [CrossRef]
Mahdavi, S. , and Akhlaghi, F. , 2011, “ Effect of the Graphite Content on the Tribological Behavior of Al/Gr and Al/30SiC/Gr Composites Processed by In Situ Powder Metallurgy (IPM) Method,” Tribol. Lett., 44(1), pp. 1–12. [CrossRef]
Kharde, Y. R. , and Saisrinadh, K. V. , 2011, “ Effect of Oil and Oil With Graphite on Tribological Properties of Glass Filled PTFE Polymer Composites,” Bull. Mater. Sci., 34(4), pp. 1003–1012. [CrossRef]
Su, L. L. , Gao, F. , Han, X. M. , Fu, R. , and Zhang, E. , 2003, “ Tribological Behavior of Copper–graphite Powder Third Body on Copper-Based Friction Materials,” Tribol. Lett., 60(30), pp. 1–12.
Zhan, Y. , and Zhang, G. , 2003, “ Graphite and SiC Hybrid Particles Reinforced Copper Composite and Its Tribological Characteristic,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 22(15), pp. 1087–1089. [CrossRef]
Wang, Q. , 2010, “ Effect of Graphite and Nano-CuO on the Tribological Behavior of Polyimide Composites,” J. Macromol. Sci., Part B, 50(2), pp. 213–224. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The effect of Gr on (a) the friction coefficient and (b) the wear rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The friction surface and Gr particles change with time (a) 6 s, (b) 60 s, and (c) 70 s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Cross section and (b) Energy spectrum of third bodies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) The worn surfaces morphologies of Cu–Al–3%Gr at speed 200 r/min and (b) the tongue layers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) The worn surface of Cu–Al–12%Gr at speed 200 r/min and (b) particles third body and irregular flake third body gather in pit

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The c content of third body at speed 200 r/min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The worn surfaces of (a) Cu–Al–3%Gr and (b) Cu–Al–12%Gr at speed 2000 r/min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The surface 3D-profiles at speed 200 r/min (a) Cu–Al–3%Gr and (b) Cu–Al–12%Gr

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The surface 3D-profiles at speed 2000 r/min (a) Cu–Al–3%Gr and (b) Cu–Al–12%Gr

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The c content of third body at speed 2000 r/min



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In