Research Papers: Lubricants

Corrosion Resistance and Tribological Characteristics of Polyaniline as Lubricating Additive in Grease

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhengfeng Cao

School of Energy Power and
Mechanical Engineering,
North China Electric Power University,
Beijing 102206, China
e-mail: czf90@ncepu.edu.cn

Yanqiu Xia

School of Energy Power and
Mechanical Engineering,
North China Electric Power University,
Beijing 102206, China;
State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication,
Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Lanzhou 730000, China
e-mail: xiayq@ncepu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received September 23, 2016; final manuscript received February 18, 2017; published online June 30, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ning Ren.

J. Tribol 139(6), 061801 (Jun 30, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: TRIB-16-1293; doi: 10.1115/1.4036271 History: Received September 23, 2016; Revised February 18, 2017

Polyaniline (PANI) was doped as lubricating additive to afford grease. The effect of PANI on the physicochemical characteristics, corrosion resistance, and tribological performances of lubricating grease was investigated in details, and the tribological action mechanisms of lubricating grease were analyzed in relation to worn surface analyses by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS). Results indicate that the PANI-doped grease has superior conductive and thermal properties. And PANI-doped grease has an excellent corrosion resistance, which is attributed to the isolation effect and the compact passivated film generated by reaction of PANI and metal. In the meantime, the PANI-doped grease performs superior friction reduction and wear resistance under different applied loads and frequencies. It is mainly ascribed that the PANI can perform like spacers to avoid direct contact between the contact interfaces, and the protective tribofilm is generated by physical adsorption and chemical reaction.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Mcelvain, F. R. , and Mulnix, S. S. , 2000, “ Statistically Determined Static Thermal Ratings of Overhead High Voltage Transmission Lines in the Rocky Mountain Region,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 15(2), pp. 899–902. [CrossRef]
Nikiforov, E. P. , 2004, “ Raising the Reliability of Overhead Transmission Lines Under the Action of Atmospheric Loads,” Hydrotech. Constr., 38(1), pp. 49–53. [CrossRef]
Wei, Y. , Yang, Q. , Xiong, X. , Wang, J. , and Weng, S. , 2014, “ Short-Term Reliability Evaluation of Transmission System Under Strong Wind and Rain,” J. Power Energy Eng., 2(4), pp. 665–672. [CrossRef]
Liu, W. X. , Xu, J. K. , Jiang, H. Y. , and Shen, Y. T. , 2013, “ Reliability Parameters Forecasting for Transmission Lines Based on Principal Component Regression,” Appl. Mech. Mater., 291–294, pp. 2381–2386.
Kopsidas, K. , and Rowland, S. M. , 2009, “ A Performance Analysis of Reconductoring an Overhead Line Structure,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, 24(4), pp. 2248–2256. [CrossRef]
Harvard, D. G. , Bellamy, G. , Buchan, P. G. , and Ewing, H. A. , 1992, “ Aged ACSR Conductors. I. Testing Procedures for Conductors and Line Items,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, 7(2), pp. 581–587. [CrossRef]
Deng, Y. J. , Yu, J. C. , Xia, K. Q. , and Yang, L. , 2013, “ Corrosion Conditions Analysis of In-Service ACSR Overhead Lines,” Appl. Mech. Mater., 446–447, pp. 753–758. [CrossRef]
Fadel, A. A. , Rosa, D. , Murça, L. B. , Fereira, J. L. A. , and Araujo, J. A. , 2011, “ Effect of High Mean Tensile Stress on the Fretting Fatigue Life of an Lbis Steel Reinforced Aluminium Conductor,” Int. J. Fatigue, 42(4), pp. 24–34.
Chang, K. C. , Yeh, J. M. , Lai, M. C. , Peng, C. W. , Chen, Y. T. , and Lin, C. L. , 2006, “ Comparative Studies on the Corrosion Protection Effect of DBSA-Doped Polyaniline Prepared From In Situ Emulsion Polymerization in the Presence of Hydrophilic Na+ -MMT and Organophilic Organo-MMT Clay Platelets,” Electrochim. Acta, 51(26), pp. 5645–5653. [CrossRef]
Bhadra, S. , Khastgir, D. , Singha, N. K. , and Lee, J. H. , 2009, “ Progress in Preparation, Processing and Applications of Polyaniline,” Prog. Polym. Sci., 34(8), pp. 783–810. [CrossRef]
Palaniappan, S. , and John, A. , 2008, “ Polyaniline Materials by Emulsion Polymerization Pathway,” Prog. Polym. Sci., 33(7), pp. 732–758. [CrossRef]
Jaymand, M. , 2013, “ Recent Progress in Chemical Modification of Polyaniline,” Prog. Polym. Sci., 38(9), pp. 1287–1306. [CrossRef]
Kraljić, M. , Mandić, Z. , and Duić, L. , 2003, “ Inhibition of Steel Corrosion by Polyaniline Coatings,” Corros. Sci., 45(1), pp. 181–198. [CrossRef]
Cochet, M. , Buisson, J. P. , Wéry, J. , Jonusauskas, G. , Faulques, E. , and Lefrant, S. , 2001, “ A Complete Optical Study of the Conductive Form of Polyaniline: The Emeraldine Salt,” Synth. Met., 119(1–3), pp. 389–390. [CrossRef]
He, Y. , Wang, J. A. , Zhang, W. , Song, J. , Pei, C. , and Chen, X. , 2010, “ ZnO-Nanowires/PANI Inorganic/Organic Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diode,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 10(11), pp. 7254–7257. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lee, B. H. , Back, H. C. , Park, S. H. , and Lee, K. , 2009, “ Flexible Polymer Electronic Devices Using Highly Conductive Polyaniline Electrode,” Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 7416(4), pp. 285–300.
Wang, H. L. , Macdiarmid, A. G. , Wang, Y. Z. , Gebier, D. D. , and Epstein, A. J. , 1996, “ Application of Polyaniline (Emeraldine Base, EB) in Polymer Light-Emitting Devices,” Synth. Met., 78(1), pp. 33–37. [CrossRef]
Jing, X. , and Wang, Y. , 2004, “ Preparation of an Epoxy/Polyaniline Composite Coating and Its Passivation Effect on Cold Rolled Steel,” Polym. J., 36(5), pp. 374–379. [CrossRef]
Zhong, L. , Zhu, H. , Hu, J. , Xiao, S. , and Gan, F. , 2006, “ A Passivation Mechanism of Doped Polyaniline on 410 Stainless Steel in Deaerated H2SO4 Solution,” Electrochim. Acta, 51(25), pp. 5494–5501. [CrossRef]
Shabani-Nooshabadi, M. , Ghoreishi, S. M. , Jafari, Y. , and Kashanizadeh, N. , 2014, “ Electrodeposition of Polyaniline-Montmorrilonite Nanocomposite Coatings on 316L Stainless Steel for Corrosion Prevention,” J. Polym. Res., 21(4), pp. 1–10. [CrossRef]
Le, D. P. , Yoo, Y. H. , Kim, J. G. , Cho, S. M. , and Son, Y. K. , 2009, “ Corrosion Characteristics of Polyaniline-Coated 316L Stainless Steel in Sulphuric Acid Containing Fluoride,” Corros. Sci., 51(2), pp. 330–338. [CrossRef]
Jadhav, R. S. , Hundiwale, D. G. , and Mahulikar, P. P. , 2010, “ Synthesis of Nano Polyaniline and Poly-O-Anisidine and Applications in Alkyd Paint Formulation to Enhance the Corrosion Resistivity of Mild Steel,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 7(7), pp. 449–454. [CrossRef]
Lu, W. K. , Elsenbaumer, R. L. , and Wessling, B. , 1995, “ Corrosion Protection of Mild Steel by Coatings Containing Polyaniline,” Synth. Met., 71(1–3), pp. 2163–2166. [CrossRef]
Özyılmaz, A. T. , Erbil, M. , and Yazıcı, B. , 2005, “ The Influence of Polyaniline (PANI) Top Coat on Corrosion Behaviour of Nickel Plated Copper,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 252(5), pp. 2092–2100. [CrossRef]
Antonijevic, M. M. , and Petrovic, M. B. , 2008, “ Copper Corrosion Inhibitors. A Review,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 3(1), pp. 1–28.
Epstein, A. J. , Smallfield, J. A. O. , Guan, H. , and Fahlman, M. , 1999, “ Corrosion Protection of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys by Polyanilines: A Potentiodynamic and Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study,” Synth. Met., 102(1–3), pp. 1374–1376. [CrossRef]
Milica, M. G. , and Branimir, N. G. , 2009, “ Electrochemical Polymerization and Initial Corrosion Properties of Polyaniline-Benzoate Film on Aluminum,” Prog. Org. Coat., 65(3), pp. 401–404. [CrossRef]
Sathiyanarayanan, S. , Azim, S. S. , and Venkatachari, G. , 2006, “ Corrosion Resistant Properties of Polyaniline–Acrylic Coating on Magnesium Alloy,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 253(4), pp. 2113–2117. [CrossRef]
Dominis, A. J. , Spinks, G. M. , and Wallace, G. G. , 2003, “ Comparison of Polyaniline Primers Prepared With Different Dopants for Corrosion Protection of Steel,” Prog. Org. Coat., 48(1), pp. 43–49. [CrossRef]
Talo, A. , Forsén, O. , and Yläsaari, S. , 1999, “ Corrosion Protective Polyaniline Epoxy Blend Coatings on Mild Steel,” Synth. Met., 102(1–3), pp. 1394–1395. [CrossRef]
Moraes, S. R. , Huerta-Vilca, D. , and Motheo, A. J. , 2004, “ Characteristics of Polyaniline Synthesized in Phosphate Buffer Solution,” Eur. Polym. J., 40(9), pp. 2033–2041. [CrossRef]
Tang, J. , Jing, X. , Wang, B. , and Wang, F. , 1988, “ Infrared Spectra of Soluble Polyaniline,” Synth. Met., 24(3), pp. 231–238. [CrossRef]
Wang, T. , and Tan, Y. J. , 2006, “ Understanding Electrodeposition of Polyaniline Coatings for Corrosion Prevention Applications Using the Wire Beam Electrode Method,” Corros. Sci., 48(8), pp. 2274–2290. [CrossRef]
Shao, Y. , Huang, H. , Zhang, T. , Meng, G. , and Wang, F. , 2009, “ Corrosion Protection of Mg–5Li Alloy With Epoxy Coatings Containing Polyaniline,” Corros. Sci., 51(12), pp. 2906–2915. [CrossRef]
Wang, H. X. , Wang, H. X. , and Xue, L. , 2004, “ Study of Adsorption of Industrial Oil by Expanded Graphite,” Carbon Tech., 23(5), pp. 21–23.
Cao, Z. F. , Xia, Y. Q. , and Ge, X. Y. , 2016, “ Conductive Capacity and Tribological Properties of Several Carbon Materials in Conductive Greases,” Ind. Lubr. Tribol., 68(5), pp. 577–585. [CrossRef]
Ge, X. Y. , Xia, Y. Q. , and Shu, Z. Y. , 2015, “ Conductive and Tribological Properties of Lithium-Based Ionic Liquids as Grease Base Oil,” Tribol. Trans., 58(4), pp. 686–690. [CrossRef]
Ge, X. Y. , Xia, Y. Q. , and Feng, X. , 2015, “ Influence of Carbon Nanotubes on Conductive Capacity and Tribological Characteristics of Poly (Ethylene Glycol-Ran-Propylene Glycol) Monobutyl Ether as Base Oil of Grease,” ASME J. Tribol., 138(1), p. 011801. [CrossRef]
Fang, J. , Xu, K. , Zhu, L. , Zhou, Z. , and Tang, H. , 2007, “ A Study on Mechanism of Corrosion Protection of Polyaniline Coating and Its Failure,” Corros. Sci., 49(11), pp. 4232–4242. [CrossRef]
Sathiyanarayanan, S. , Jeyaram, R. , Muthukrishnan, S. , and Venkatachari, G. , 2009, “ Corrosion Protection Mechanism of Polyaniline Blended Organic Coating on Steel,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 156(4), pp. C127–C134. [CrossRef]
Chen, Y. , Wang, X. H. , Li, J. , Lu, J. L. , and Wang, F. S. , 2007, “ Polyaniline for Corrosion Prevention of Mild Steel Coupled With Copper,” Electrochim. Acta, 52(17), pp. 5392–5399. [CrossRef]
Jiang, H. , Li, J. , and Xia, G. , 2003, “ A Study on Electric Polyaniline Used in Protection and Seal,” China Surf. Eng., 16(3), pp. 40–43.
Chen, W. X. , Li, F. , Han, G. , Xia, J. B. , Wang, L. Y. , Tu, J. P. , and Xu, Z. D. , 2003, “ Tribological Behavior of Carbon-Nanotube-Filled PTFE Composites,” Tribol. Lett., 15(3), pp. 275–278. [CrossRef]
Zhao, Y. B. , Zhao, Q. L. , Zhou, J. F. , and Zhang, Z. J. , 1999, “ The Synthesis and Tribological Properties of Polyaniline Microparticles,” Chem. Res., 10(3), pp. 13–16.
Cao, Z. F. , Xia, Y. Q. , and Chen, J. H. , 2016, “ Tribological Properties of Vapor Grown Carbon Fibers as Conductive Additive in Grease,” Tribology, 36(2), pp. 137–144.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

SEM morphology and Fourier transform infrared analysis spectra of PANI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Structural formula of T705 and T706

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

TGA curves of the lubricating greases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Aluminum and steel blocks after salt spray test. (a) and (a′) PANI grease, (b) and (b′) T705 grease, (c) and (c′) T706 grease, (d) and (d′) graphite grease, and (e) and (e′) base grease (upper blocks are aluminum and lower blocks are steel).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Evolution of average COFs (a) and average wear widths (b) for the prepared greases at different additives concentration at RT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Evolution of average COFs (a) and average wear widths (b) for the prepared greases at different loads, 5 Hz, and RT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Evolution of average COFs (a) and average wear widths (b) for the prepared greases at different frequencies, 40 N, and RT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

MFT-R4000 tribometer and evolution of friction coefficient with time during a current ramp test from 0 to 20 A for PANI grease at room temperature (load: 20 N, stroke: 5 mm, frequency: 5 Hz, and current: 0–20 A)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Morphologies of the worn surfaces lubricated with lubricating greases at 40 N and 5 Hz. (a) and (a′) PANI grease, (b) and (b′) T705 grease, and (c) and (c′) T706 grease.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

EDS of the worn surfaces lubricated with base and PANI greases at 40 N and 5 Hz. Base grease: (a) steel ball and (b) aluminum block; and PANI grease: (c) steel ball and (d) aluminum block.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Schematic of friction mechanism of PANI greases



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In