Research Papers: Coatings and Solid Lubricants

Tribological Properties of Electrodeposited Ni–Co3O4 Nanocomposite Coating on Steel Substrate

[+] Author and Article Information
Khalida Akhtar

National Centre of Excellence in
Physical Chemistry,
University of Peshawar,
Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
e-mail: khalida_akhtar@yahoo.com

Hina Khalid, Ikram Ul Haq, Naila Zubair, Zia Ullah Khan, Abid Hussain

National Centre of Excellence in
Physical Chemistry,
University of Peshawar,
Peshawar 25120, Pakistan

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received September 29, 2016; final manuscript received March 24, 2017; published online June 30, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Nuria Espallargas.

J. Tribol 139(6), 061302 (Jun 30, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-16-1301; doi: 10.1115/1.4036450 History: Received September 29, 2016; Revised March 24, 2017

Uniform nanoparticles of cobalt oxide precursors were prepared by the chemical precipitation in which the headspace vapors of ammonium hydroxide solution of known concentration were allowed to bubble through the aqueous solutions of cobalt sulfate, containing appropriate amount of the nonionic surfactant, octylphenoxy poly ethoxy ethanol. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that uniformity in particle size was dependent upon the applied precipitation conditions. Extensive optimization was therefore performed for the attainment of uniformity in particle size and shape. The amorphous precursor was transformed into crystalline Co3O4 as confirmed by X-ray diffractometry. These particles, with isoelectric point (IEP) at pH ∼ 8.4, were then employed as reinforcement additive for strengthening the electrodeposited nickel matrix. Effect of various parameters, i.e., stirring rate, applied current density, and temperature, was studied on the amount of the codeposited Co3O4 particles in the nanocomposite coatings (Ni–Co3O4) during the electrodeposition process. pH of the coating mixtures was kept below IEP value of Co3O4 so that the latter particles carried net positive surface charge. The coated surfaces were subjected to various tests, i.e., microhardness, wear/friction, and corrosion. Results revealed that irrespective of the amount of the embedded Co3O4 particles, nanocomposite coatings demonstrated superior performance as compared to pure nickel coatings.

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Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrograph (a), X-ray diffraction pattern (b), and pH-dependent zeta potential value (c) of Co3O4 particles

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Fig. 2

Variation in cathodic efficiency of the nickel bath as a function of the applied current density at different temperatures, stirring rate, 100 rpm

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Fig. 8

Variation in Co3O4 content of the composite coating with change in the applied current. Stirring rate, 100 rpm; temperature, 30 °C; and aging time, 12 min.

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Fig. 9

Variation in Co3O4 content of the composite coating with change in the bath temperature. Applied current, 2 mA/cm2; stirring rate, 100 rpm; and aging time, 12 min.

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Fig. 10

Scanning electron microscopic images of electrodeposited coatings: (a) pure Ni and (b) Ni–Co3O4, composed of 2.12 wt % Co3O4 particles. (c) X-ray mapping of sample in (b) with respect to Co.

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Fig. 3

Variation in Co3O4 content of the composite coating with change in the bath pH

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Fig. 4

Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of Ni–Co3O4 composite coatings, at pH 3 (a), 4.4 (b), 5.8 (c), 6.5 (d), 7.6 (e), 8.7 (f), 9.4 (g), 10.6 (h), and 11 (i)

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Fig. 5

Variation in cathodic efficiency of the nickel bath as a function of the concentration of Co3O4 particles in the coating mixture. Applied current, 2 mA/cm2; stirring rate, 100 rpm; temperature 30 °C; and aging time, 12 min.

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Fig. 6

Variation in Co3O4 content of the composite coating as a function of the concentration of Co3O4 particles in the coating mixture at different stirring rates. Applied current, 2 mA/cm2; temperature, 30 °C; and aging time, 12 min.

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Fig. 7

EDX spectra of a typical Ni–Co3O4 composite coating

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Fig. 14

Variations in COF and wear volume as a function of Co3O4 content in Ni–Co3O4 coatings, measured during the wear tests on these surfaces. Applied load, 18 N.

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Fig. 11

Variations in microhardness and wear volume of Ni–Co3O4 composite coating as a function of their Co3O4 content

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Fig. 12

SEM of the wear tracks generated on (a) pure Ni and (b) Ni–Co3O4 composite coatings, displayed in Figs. 10(a) and 10(b), respectively

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Fig. 13

Variations in COF as a function of sliding distance for pure Ni (a) and Ni–Co3O4 coatings (b), measured during the wear tests on these surfaces. Applied load, 18 N.

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Fig. 15

Corrosion rate of bare mild steel substrate, plain-Ni, and Ni–Co3O4(s) composite coated substrates



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