Research Papers: Lubricants

Tribo-Investigations on Oils With Dispersants and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Particles

[+] Author and Article Information
Manoj Kumar Gupta

Industrial Tribology Machine Dynamics and
Maintenance Engineering Centre,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: manoj2012kgupta@gmail.com

Jayashree Bijwe

Industrial Tribology Machine Dynamics
and Maintenance Engineering Centre,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: jbijwe@gmail.com

Ajay Kumar Kadiyala

Industrial Tribology Machine Dynamics and
Maintenance Engineering Centre,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: ajay.kadiyala@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received June 29, 2017; final manuscript received September 26, 2017; published online October 27, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Satish V. Kailas.

J. Tribol 140(3), 031801 (Oct 27, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1261; doi: 10.1115/1.4038105 History: Received June 29, 2017; Revised September 26, 2017

A dispersant is almost an unavoidable additive in engine oils since it helps to keep the carbonaceous particles in a suspended form. Dispersants can be multifunctional and can therefore interfere with the functions of other additives either synergistically or antagonistically. The present work investigated the influence of four dispersants (with and without particles of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) on selected lubrication-related properties of the oils using four ball tester. Particles of hBN, though known as effective anti-wear (AW) and anti-friction (AF) additives, did not prove effective in oil in the presence of dispersants. On the other hand, it proved to be a good extreme pressure (EP) additive by showing 27% improvement in weld load (WL). Worn surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Raman spectroscopy.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Shah, F. U. , Glavatskih, S. , and Antzutkin, O. N. , 2013, “ Boron in Tribology: From Borates to Ionic Liquids,” Tribol. Lett., 51(3), pp. 281–301. [CrossRef]
Baş, H. , and Karabacak, Y. E. , 2014, “ Investigation of the Effects of Boron Additives on the Performance of Engine Oil,” Tribol. Trans., 57(4), pp. 740–748. [CrossRef]
Reeves, C. J. , Menezes, P. L. , Lovell, M. R. , and Jen, T. C. , 2013, “ The Size Effect of Boron Nitride Particles on the Tribological Performance of Biolubricants for Energy Conservation and Sustainability,” Tribol. Lett., 51(3), pp. 437–452. [CrossRef]
Kimura, Y. , Wakabayashi, T. , Okada, K. , Wada, T. , and Nishikawa, H. , 1999, “ Boron Nitride as a Lubricant Additive,” Wear, 232(2), pp. 199–206. [CrossRef]
Çelik, O. N. , Ay, N. , and Göncü, Y. , 2013, “ Effect of Nano Hexagonal Boron Nitride Lubricant Additives on the Friction and Wear Properties of AISI 4140 Steel,” Part. Sci. Technol., 31(5), pp. 501–506. [CrossRef]
Abdullah, M. I. H. C. , Abdollah, M. F. B. , Amiruddin, H. , Tamaldin, N. , and Nuri, N. R. M. , 2013, “ Optimization of Tribological Performance of hBN/Al2O3 Nanoparticles as Engine Oil Additives,” Procedia Eng., 68, pp. 313–319. [CrossRef]
Wan, Q. , Jin, Y. , Sun, P. , and Ding, Y. , 2015, “ Tribological Behaviour of a Lubricant Oil Containing Boron Nitride Nanoparticles,” Procedia Eng., 102, pp. 1038–1045. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, T. K. , Do, I. , and Kwon, P. , 2012, “ A Tribological Study of Vegetable Oil Enhanced by Nano-Platelets and Implication in MQL Machining,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., 13(7), pp. 1077–1083. [CrossRef]
Kumari, S. , Sharma, O. P. , Gusain, R. , Mungse, H. P. , Kukrety, A. , Kumar, N. , Sugimura, H. , and Khatri, O. P. , 2015, “ Alkyl-Chain-Grafted Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanoplatelets as Oil-Dispersible Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 7(6), pp. 3708–3716. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Abdullah, M. I. H. C. , Fadzli Abdollah, M. , Amiruddin, H. , Tamaldin, N. , and Mat Nuri, N. R. , 2014, “ Effect of hBN/Al2O3 Nanoparticle Additives on the Tribological Performance of Engine Oil,” J. Teknol. Sci. Eng., 66(3), pp. 1–6.
Abdullah, M. I. H. C. , Abdollah, M. F. B. , Tamaldin, N. , Amiruddin, H. , and Nuri, N. R. M. , 2016, “ Effect of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanoparticles as an Additive on the Extreme Pressure Properties of Engine Oil,” Ind. Lubr. Tribol., 68(4), pp. 441–445. [CrossRef]
Rico, E. F. , Minondo, I. , and Cuervo, D. G. , 2007, “ The Effectiveness of PTFE Nanoparticle Powder as an EP Additive to Mineral Base Oils,” Wear, 262(11–12), pp. 1399–1406. [CrossRef]
Dubey, M. K. , Bijwe, J. , and Ramakumar, S. S. V. , 2013, “ PTFE Based Nano-Lubricants,” Wear, 306(1–2), pp. 80–88. [CrossRef]
Dubey, M. K. , Bijwe, J. , and Ramakumar, S. S. V. , 2015, “ Nano-PTFE: New Entrant as a Very Promising EP Additive,” Tribol. Int., 87, pp. 121–131. [CrossRef]
Dubey, M. K. , Bijwe, J. , and Ramakumar, S. S. V. , 2016, “ Effect of Dispersant on Nano-PTFE Based Lubricants on Tribo-Performance in Fretting Wear Mode,” RSC Adv., 6(27), pp. 22604–22614. [CrossRef]
Lee, C. , Hwang, Y. , Choi, Y. , Lee, J. , Choi, C. , and Oh, J. , 2009, “ A Study on the Tribological Characteristics of Graphite Nano Lubricants,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., 10(1), pp. 85–90. [CrossRef]
Huang, H. D. , Tu, J. P. , Gan, L. P. , and Li, C. Z. , 2006, “ An Investigation on Tribological Properties of Graphite Nanosheets as Oil Additive,” Wear, 261(2), pp. 140–144. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Z. J. , Simionesie, D. , and Schaschke, C. , 2014, “ Graphite and Hybrid Nanomaterials as Lubricant Additives,” Lubricants, 2(2), pp. 44–65. [CrossRef]
Park, K.-H. , Ewald, B. , and Kwon, P. Y. , 2011, “ Effect of Nano-Enhanced Lubricant in Minimum Quantity Lubrication Balling Milling,” ASME J. Tribol., 133(3), p. 31803. [CrossRef]
Amiruddin, H. , Abdollah, M. F. B. , Idris, A. M. , Abdullah, M. I. H. C. , and Tamaldin, N. , 2015, “ Stability of Nano-Oil by pH Control in Stationary Conditions,” Mechanical Engineering Research Day (MERD), Melaka, Malaysia, Mar. 31, pp. 55–56. http://www3.utem.edu.my/care/proceedings/merd15/pdf/p55_56.pdf
Kapuscinski, M. M. , and Jones, R. E. , 1987, “Dispersant-Antioxidant Multifunction Viscosity Index Improver,” Texaco Inc., White Plains, NY, U.S. Patent No. US4699723 A. https://www.google.ch/patents/US4699723
Kapuscinski, M. M. , Nalesnik, T. E. , Biggs, R. T. , Chafetz, H. , and Liu, C. S. , 1990, “Dispersant Anti-Oxidant VI Improver and Lubricating Oil Composition Containing Same,” Texaco Inc., White Plains, NY, U.S. Patent No. US4948524 A. http://www.google.com.pg/patents/US4948524
Emert, J. , Rossi, A. , Rea, S. , Franklin, J. , and Kim, M. W. , 2000, “Polymers Derived From Ethylene and 1-Butene for Use in the Preparation of Lubricant Dispersant Additives,” Exxon Chemical Patents Inc., Spring, TX, U.S. Patent No. US6030930 A. http://www.google.com.pg/patents/US6030930
Rudnick, L. R. , 2003, Lubricant Additives: Chemistry and Applications, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. [CrossRef]
Mang, T. , and Dresel, W. , 2007, Lubricants and Lubrication, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Weinheim, Germany.
Kim, Y. , Kim, J. , Hyeon, D. H. , Han, J. S. , Chun, B. H. , Jeong, B. H. , and Kim, S. H. , 2015, “ Development of PIBSI Type Dispersants for Carbon Deposit From Thermal Oxidative Decomposition of Jet A-1,” Fuel, 158, pp. 91–97. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Z. , Kasrai, M. , Bancroft, G. M. , and Yamaguchi, E. S. , 2003, “ Study of the Interaction of ZDDP and Dispersants Using X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy—Part 1: Thermal Chemical Reactions,” Tribol. Lett., 15(4), pp. 377–384. [CrossRef]
Yamaguchi, E. S. , Zhang, Z. , Kasrai, M. , and Bancroft, G. M. , 2003, “ Study of the Interaction of ZDDP and Dispersants Using X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy—Part 2: Tribochemical Reactions,” Tribol. Lett., 15(4), pp. 385–394. [CrossRef]
Parent, M. E. , Yang, J. , Jeon, Y. , Toney, M. F. , Zhou, Z. L. , and Henze, D. , 2011, “ Influence of Surfactant Structure on Reverse Micelle Size and Charge for Nonpolar Electrophoretic Inks,” Langmuir, 27(19), pp. 11845–11851. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Battez, A. H. , Rico, J. E. F. , Arias, A. N. , Rodriguez, J. L. V. , Rodriguez, R. C. , and Fernandez, J. M. D. , 2006, “ The Tribological Behaviour of ZnO Nanoparticles as an Additive to PAO6,” Wear, 261(3–4), pp. 256–263. [CrossRef]
Lijesh, K. P. , Muzakkir, S. M. , and Hirani, H. , 2015, “ Experimental Tribological Performance Evaluation of Nano Lubricant Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNT),” Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res., 10(6), pp. 14543–14550. http://web.iitd.ac.in/~hirani/lijesh-scopus.pdf
Demas, N. G. , Timofeeva, E. V. , Routbort, J. L. , and Fenske, G. R. , 2012, “ Tribological Effects of BN and MoS2 Nanoparticles Added to Polyalphaolefin Oil in Piston Skirt/Cylinder Liner Tests,” Tribol. Lett., 47(1), pp. 91–102. [CrossRef]
Gulzar, M. , Masjuki, H. H. , Kalam, M. A. , Varman, M. , Zulkifli, N. W. M. , Mufti, R. A. , Zahid, R. , and Yunus, R. , 2017, “ Dispersion Stability and Tribological Characteristics of TiO2/SiO2 Nanocomposite-Enriched Biobased Lubricant,” Tribol. Trans., 60(4), pp. 670–680. [CrossRef]
Chiñas-Castillo, F. , and., and Spikes, H. A. , 2003, “ Mechanism of Action of Colloidal Solid Dispersions,” ASME J. Tribol., 125(3), pp. 552–557. [CrossRef]
NCBI, 2005, “Compound Summary for CID 45639,” National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD, accessed Mar. 16, 2017, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/45639
Rabelo, J. , Batista, E. , Cavaleri, F. W. , and Meirelles, A. J. A. , 2000, “ Viscosity Prediction for Fatty Systems,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 77(12), pp. 1255–1262. [CrossRef]
Viscopedia, 2017, “ASTM D341/Viscosity-Temperature Extrapolation,” accessed Mar. 16, 2017, http://www.viscopedia.com/calculator/astm-d341-Viscosity-Temperature-Extrapolation
IP 239/2007, 2011, “Determination of Extreme Pressure and Anti-Wear Properties of Lubricating Fluids and Grease–Four Ball Method (European Conditions),” IP Standard Test Methods, London, Standard No. 239. http://publishing.energyinst.org/ip-test-methods/full-list-of-ip-test-methods-publications/ip-239-determination-of-extreme-pressure-and-anti-wear-properties-of-lubricating-fluids-and-greases-four-ball-method-european-conditions-copy
Piekoszewski, W. , Szczerek, M. , and Tuszynski, W. , 2001, “ The Action of Lubricants Under Extreme Pressure Conditions in a Modified Four-Ball Tester,” Wear, 249(3–4), pp. 188–193. [CrossRef]
Khaemba, D. N. , Neville, A. , and Morina, A. , 2015, “ A Methodology for Raman Characterisation of MoDTC Tribofilms and Its Application in Investigating the Influence of Surface Chemistry on Friction Performance of MoDTC Lubricants,” Tribol. Lett., 59(38), p. 38.
Erdemir, A. , Ramirez, G. , Eryilmaz, O. L. , Narayanan, B. , Liao, Y. , Kamath, G. , and Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S. , 2016, “ Carbon-Based Tribofilms From Lubricating Oils,” Nature, 536(7614), pp. 67–71. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Podgornik, B. , Kosec, T. , Kocijan, A. , and Donik, Č. , 2015, “ Tribological Behaviour and Lubrication Performance of Hexagonal Boron Nitride (H-BN) as a Replacement for Graphite in Aluminium Forming,” Tribology Int., 81, pp. 267–275. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs 5 μm hBN particles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Configuration of a four ball tester (a) and welded balls (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Photographs of oils added with dispersant and hBN: (a) freshly prepared oils; (b) after a week; and (c) OP1H for different weeks

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Influence of concentration of dispersants with and without hBN on weld load of oils; (a) Oleic acid, (b) PIBSI, (c) LZ 6412, and (d) Oloa 11000 (bars with dots indicate hBN added oils; bars with darker shades and more strips indicate oils with higher % of dispersant)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Influence of concentration of dispersant with and without hBN particles on WSD at preweld loads (PWL); (a) 1098 N, (b) 1236 N, and (c) 1373 N (bars with dots indicate hBN added oils; bars with darker shades and more strips indicate oils with higher % of dispersant)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Friction coefficient as a function of time indicating influence of concentration of dispersants in oil with and without hBN on preweld loads (N): (a) 1098, (b) 1236, and (c) 1373

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Raman spectra of the ball at preweld load (1098 N) for OP1 oil and (b) corresponding Raman spectra

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Optical image of scar region for the preweld (1236 N) ball in OP1H, (b) Raman spectra around the scar at marked locations (900 cm−1 to 1700 cm−1), and (c) Raman spectra at location 1 (150 cm−1 to 800 cm−1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

SEM micrographs and EDAX dot maps of worn surfaces of balls at preweld load (a)–(c) for OP1 (1098 N) and (d)–(g) for OP1H (1236 N) oils



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In