Research Papers: Micro-Nano Tribology

Tribological Behaviors of Polymer-Based Hybrid Nanocomposite Brake Pad

[+] Author and Article Information
Oluwatoyin Joseph Gbadeyan

Composite Research Group,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Durban University of Technology,
Durban 4001, South Africa
e-mail: toyin2good@yahoo.com

Krishnan Kanny

Composite Research Group,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Durban University of Technology,
Durban 4001, South Africa

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received August 17, 2017; final manuscript received November 29, 2017; published online January 16, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Dae-Eun Kim.

J. Tribol 140(3), 032003 (Jan 16, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1320; doi: 10.1115/1.4038679 History: Received August 17, 2017; Revised November 29, 2017

Although extensive improvement has been done on brake pad for vehicles, most recent materials used still encounter wear rate, friction, stopping distance, and time deficiencies. In this regards, this study developed a polymer-based nanocomposite brake pad. Here, a combination of carbon-based materials, including those at a nanoscale, was used to produce the brake pad. Tribological performance, such as friction coefficient, wear rate, and stopping distances of developed brake pad were investigated using an inertial dynamometer. The results revealed that the stopping distances, the coefficient of friction (CoF), and wear rate vary with the brake pad formation and velocity. The micrographs show changes in the structural formation after the incorporation of carbon-based fillers. It also shows smooth surface structure and uniform dispersion of the carbon fiber. The smooth surface of the worn brake pad is an indicative of a tougher structure. Hence, it was deduced that the fabricated polymer-based hybrid composite had good tribological property. This improved property is suggestive of materials that may be successfully used for brake pad application.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Su, F.-h. , Zhang, Z.-Z. , and Liu, W.-M. , 2006, “ Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Carbon Fabric Composites Filled With Several Nano-Particulates,” Wear, 260(7–8), pp. 861–868. [CrossRef]
Pesetskii, S. S. , Bogdanovich, S. P. , and Myshkin, N. K. , 2007, “ Tribological Behavior of Nanocomposites Produced by the Dispersion of Nanofillers in Polymer Melts,” J. Friction Wear, 28(5), pp. 457–475. [CrossRef]
Zhao, G. , Hussainova, I. , Antonov, M. , Wang, Q. , and Wang, T. , 2013, “ Friction and Wear of Fiber Reinforced Polyimide Composites,” Wear, 301(1–2), pp. 122–129. [CrossRef]
Ibhadode, A. , and Dagwa, I. , 2008, “ Development of Asbestos-Free Friction Lining Material From Palm Kernel Shell,” J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng., 30(2), pp. 166–173. [CrossRef]
Kim, S. J. , and Jang, H. , 2000, “ Friction and Wear of Friction Materials Containing Two Different Phenolic Resins Reinforced With Aramid Pulp,” Tribol. Int., 33(7), pp. 477–484. [CrossRef]
Bijwe, J. , Majumdar, N. , and Satapathy, B. K. , 2005, “ Influence of Modified Phenolic Resins on the Fade and Recovery Behavior of Friction Materials,” Wear, 259(7–12), pp. 1068–1078. [CrossRef]
Hwang, H. J. , Jung, S. L. , Cho, K. H. , Kim, Y. J. , and Jang, H. , 2010, “ Tribological Performance of Brake Friction Materials Containing Carbon Nanotubes,” Wear, 268(3–4), pp. 519–525. [CrossRef]
Jang, H. , Ko, K. , Kim, S. J. , Basch, R. H. , and Fash, J. W. , 2004, “ The Effect of Metal Fibers on the Friction Performance of Automotive Brake Friction Materials,” Wear, 256(3–4), pp. 406–414. [CrossRef]
Lee, K.-J. , Hsu, M.-H. , Cheng, H.-Z. , Jang, J. S.-C. , Lin, S.-W. , Lee, C.-C. , and Lin, S.-C., 2009, “ Tribological and Mechanical Behavior of Carbon Nanotube Containing Brake Lining Materials Prepared Through Sol–Gel Catalyst Dispersion and CVD Process,” J. Alloys Compd., 483(1–2), pp. 389–393. [CrossRef]
Cho, M. H. , Kim, S. J. , Kim, D. , and Jang, H. , 2005, “ Effects of Ingredients on Tribological Characteristics of a Brake Lining: An Experimental Case Study,” Wear, 258, pp. 1682–1687. [CrossRef]
Yi, G. , and Yan, F. , 2007, “ Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Phenolic Resin-Based Friction Composites Filled With Several Inorganic Fillers,” Wear, 262(1–2), pp. 121–129. [CrossRef]
Nagesh, S. , Siddaraju, C. , Prakash, S. , and Ramesh, M. , 2014, “ Characterization of Brake Pads by Variation in Composition of Friction Materials,” Procedia Mater. Sci., 5, pp. 295–302. [CrossRef]
Buckley, J. D. , and Edie, D. D. , 1993, Carbon-Carbon Materials and Composites, Vol. 1254, William Andrew, Norwich, NY.
Peebles, L., Jr. , 1995, Carbon Fibers, Formation, Structure and Properties, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Kim, J. W. , Jang, H. , and Woo Kim, J. , 2014, “ Friction and Wear of Monolithic and Glass-Fiber Reinforced PA66 in Humid Conditions,” Wear, 309(1–2), pp. 82–88. [CrossRef]
Friedrich, K. , Zhang, Z. , and Schlarb, A. K. , 2005, “ Effects of Various Fillers on the Sliding Wear of Polymer Composites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 65(15–16), pp. 2329–2343. [CrossRef]
Khun, N. W. , Zhang, H. , Lim, L. H. , Yue, C. Y. , Hu, X. , and Yang, J. , 2014, “ Tribological Properties of Short Carbon Fibers Reinforced Epoxy Composites,” Friction, 2(3), pp. 226–239. [CrossRef]
Chan, D. , and Stachowiak, G. , 2004, “ Review of Automotive Brake Friction Materials,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D: J. Automob. Eng., 218(9), pp. 953–966. [CrossRef]
Liew, K. W. , and Nirmal, U. , 2013, “ Frictional Performance Evaluation of Newly Designed Brake Pad Materials,” Mater. Des., 48, pp. 25–33. [CrossRef]
Jang, H. , Lee, J. S. , and Fash, J. W. , 2001, “ Compositional Effects of the Brake Friction Material on Creep Groan Phenomena,” Wear, 251(1–2), pp. 1477–1483. [CrossRef]
Blau, P. J. , 2001, “ Compositions, Functions, and Testing of Friction Brake Materials and Their Additives,” Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, TN, Report No. ORNL/TM-2001/64. https://info.ornl.gov/sites/publications/Files/Pub57043.pdf
Cho, M. H. , Ju, J. , Kim, S. J. , and Jang, H. , 2006, “ Tribological Properties of Solid Lubricants (Graphite, Sb2S3, MoS2) for Automotive Brake Friction Materials,” Wear, 260(7–8), pp. 855–860. [CrossRef]
Jang, H. , and Kim, S. J. , 2000, “ The Effects of Antimony Trisulfide (Sb2S3) and Zirconium Silicate (ZrSiO4) in the Automotive Brake Friction Material on Friction Characteristics,” Wear, 239(2), pp. 229–236. [CrossRef]
Kim, S. J. , Hyung Cho, M. , Hyung Cho, K. , and Jang, H. , 2007, “ Complementary Effects of Solid Lubricants in the Automotive Brake Lining,” Tribol. Int., 40(1), pp. 15–20. [CrossRef]
Deshmukh, P. , Lovell, M. , Sawyer, W. G. , and Mobley, A. , 2006, “ On the Friction and Wear Performance of Boric Acid Lubricant Combinations in Extended Duration Operations,” Wear, 260(11–12), pp. 1295–1304. [CrossRef]
Han, L. , Huang, L. , Zhang, J. , and Lu, Y. , 2006, “ Optimization of Ceramic Friction Materials,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 66(15), pp. 2895–2906. [CrossRef]
Gojny, F. , Wichmann, M. , Köpke, U. , Fiedler, B. , and Schulte, K. , 2004, “ Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Epoxy-Composites: Enhanced Stiffness and Fracture Toughness at Low Nanotube Content,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 64(15), pp. 2363–2371. [CrossRef]
Gbadeyan, O. J. , Kanny, K. , and Mohan, T. P. , 2017, “ Tribological, Mechanical, and Microstructural of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Short Carbon Fiber Epoxy Composites,” ASME J. Tribol., 140(2), p. 022002. [CrossRef]
Gbadeyan, O. J. , Kanny, K. , and Mohan, T. P. , 2017, “ Influence of the Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube and Short Carbon Fibre Composition on Tribological Properties of` Epoxy Composites,” Tribol. Mater., Surf. Interfaces, 11(2), pp. 59–65. [CrossRef]
Yang, K. , Gu, M. , Guo, Y. , Pan, X. , and Mu, G. , 2009, “ Effects of Carbon Nanotube Functionalization on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Composites,” Carbon, 47(7), pp. 1723–1737. [CrossRef]
Yang, S.-Y. , Lin, W.-N. , Huang, Y.-L. , Tien, H.-W. , Wang, J.-Y. , Ma, C.-C. M. , Li, S.-M., and Wang, Y.-S., 2011, “ Synergetic Effects of Graphene Platelets and Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Composites,” Carbon, 49(3), pp. 793–803. [CrossRef]
Gojny, F. H. , and Schulte, K. , 2004, “ Functionalisation Effect on the Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube/Epoxy-Composites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 64(15), pp. 2303–2308. [CrossRef]
Yasmin, A. , Luo, J.-J. , and Daniel, I. M. , 2006, “ Processing of Expanded Graphite Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 66(9), pp. 1182–1189. [CrossRef]
Sengupta, R. , Bhattacharya, M. , Bandyopadhyay, S. , and Bhowmick, A. K. , 2011, “ A Review on the Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Graphite and Modified Graphite Reinforced Polymer Composites,” Prog. Polym. Sci., 36(5), pp. 638–670. [CrossRef]
Li, J. , and Xia, Y. , 2009, “ The Reinforcement Effect of Carbon Fiber on the Friction and Wear Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced PA6 Composites,” Fibers Polym., 10(4), pp. 519–525. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Z. , Bredit, C. , Haupert, F. , and Friedric, K. , 2004, “ Enhancement of the Wear Resistance of Epoxy: Short Fibre, Graphite, PTFE and Nano-TiO2,” Comp. Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf., 35(12), pp. 1385–1392. [CrossRef]
Li, D.-X. , You, Y.-L. , Deng, X. , Li, W.-J. , and Xie, Y. , 2013, “ Tribological Properties of Solid Lubricants Filled Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide 6 Composites,” Mater. Des., 46, pp. 809–815. [CrossRef]
Wang, J. , Gu, M. , Songhao, B. , and Ge, S. , 2003, “ Investigation of the Influence of MoS2 Filler on the Tribological Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Nylon 1010 Composites,” Wear, 255(1–6), pp. 774–779. [CrossRef]
Lim, D.-S. , An, J.-W. , and Lee, H. J. , 2002, “ Effect of Carbon Nanotube Addition on the Tribological Behavior of Carbon/Carbon Composites,” Wear, 252(5–6), pp. 512–517. [CrossRef]
El-Tayeb, N. S. M. , and Liew, K. W. , 2009, “ On the Dry and Wet Sliding Performance of Potentially New Frictional Brake Pad Materials for Automotive Industry,” Wear, 266(1–2), pp. 275–287. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Brake pad samples: schematic diagram of brake pad: (b) commercial and (c) hybrid nanocomposite

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Dynamometers assembly: (a) inertia dynamometer used for brake pad testing and (b) schematic layout of brake disk and pad

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Variation of wear rate with speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Variation of the CoF with speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Variation of stopping distance with speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

SEM micrograph of brake pads worn surfaces



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In