Research Papers: Hydrodynamic Lubrication

Tribological Performance of Textured Surfaces Created by Modulation-Assisted Machining

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew Tock

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
76 Lomb Memorial Drive,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: adt2843@rit.edu

Rahul Gandhi

Department of Industrial and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Pennsylvania State University,
State College, PA 16802
e-mail: gandhirahulrajeev@gmail.com

Christopher Saldana

George W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Manufacturing Research (MaRC),
Building Atlanta,
Atlanta, GA 30332-0405
e-mail: christopher.saldana@me.gatech.edu

Patricia Iglesias

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
76 Lomb Memorial Drive,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: pxieme@rit.edu

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received December 7, 2017; final manuscript received April 24, 2018; published online May 21, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Bart Raeymaekers.

J. Tribol 140(6), 061704 (May 21, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1475; doi: 10.1115/1.4040149 History: Received December 07, 2017; Revised April 24, 2018

Methods for scalable surface texturing continue to receive significant attention due to the importance of microtextured surfaces toward improving friction, wear, and lubrication ability of mechanical devices. Controlled textures on surfaces act as fluid reservoirs and receptacles for debris and wear particles, reducing friction and wear of mating components. There are numerous fabrication techniques that can be used to create microsized depressions on surfaces, but each has limitations in terms of control and scalability. In the present study, modulation-assisted machining (MAM) is demonstrated as a viable approach to produce such textures, offering a potentially cost-effective approach for scalable production of these features on component surfaces. In this work, the wear behavior of several textured surfaces created by MAM was studied using a ball-on-flat reciprocating tribometer. Textured and untextured alloy 360 brass disks were mated with stainless steel AISI 440C balls under lubricated conditions and variable sliding distance. The textured surfaces exhibited noticeably reduced wear under the longer sliding distances and the tribological performance of the surfaces depended on the size of the microdimples. Wear mechanisms are elucidated from the optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) observations and the implications for using such surfaces in practice are briefly discussed.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Etsion, I. , and Sher, E. , 2009, “Improving Fuel Efficiency With Laser Surface Textured Piston Rings,” Tribol. Int., 42(4), pp. 542–547. [CrossRef]
Etsion, I. , 2005, “State of the Art in Laser Surface Texturing,” ASME J. Tribol., 127(1), p. 248. [CrossRef]
Greco, A. , Raphaelson, S. , Ehmann, K. , Wang, Q. J. , and Lin, C. , 2009, “Surface Texturing of Tribological Interfaces Using the Vibromechanical Texturing Method,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 131(6), p. 61005. [CrossRef]
Gualtieri, E. , Borghi, A. , Calabri, L. , Pugno, N. , and Valeri, S. , 2009, “Increasing Nanohardness and Reducing Friction of Nitride Steel by Laser Surface Texturing,” Tribol. Int., 42(5), pp. 699–705. [CrossRef]
Wakuda, M. , Yamauchi, Y. , Kanzaki, S. , and Yasuda, Y. , 2003, “Effect of Surface Texturing on Friction Reduction Between Ceramic and Steel Materials Under Lubricated Sliding Contact,” Wear, 254(3–4), pp. 356–363. [CrossRef]
Iglesias, P. , Saldana, C. , Sebastian, J. D. , and Gandhi, R. , 2015, “Tribological Properties of Plunging-Type Textured Surfaces Produced by Modulation-Assisted Machining,” VIII Iberian Conference on Tribology, pp. 271–277.
Gandhi, R. , Sebastian, D. , Basu, S. , Mann, J. B. , Iglesias, P. , and Saldana, C. , 2015, “Surfaces by Vibration/Modulation-Assisted Texturing for Tribological Applications,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 85(1–4), pp. 909–920.
Greco, A. , Martini, A. , Liu, Y. , Lin, C. , and Wang, Q. J. , 2010, “Rolling Contact Fatigue Performance of Vibro-Mechanical Textured Surfaces,” Tribol. Trans., 53(4), pp. 610–620. [CrossRef]
Kurella, A. , and Dahotre, N. B. , 2005, “Review Paper: Surface Modification for Bioimplants: The Role of Laser Surface Engineering,” J. Biomater. Appl., 20(1), pp. 5–50. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15972362
Mann, J. B. , Guo, Y. , Saldana, C. , Compton, W. D. , and Chandrasekar, S. , 2011, “Enhancing Material Removal Processes Using Modulation-Assisted Machining,” Tribol. Int., 44(10), pp. 1225–1235. [CrossRef]
Mann, J. , Guo, Y. , Saldana, C. , Yeung, H. , Compton, W. , and Chandrasekar, S. , 2011, “Modulation-Assisted Machining: A New Paradigm in Material Removal Processes,” 17th CIRP Conference on Modelling of Machining Operations, pp. 515–522.
Mann, J. B. , Saldana, C. J. , Guo, Y. , Yeung, H. , Compton, W. D. , and Chandrasekar, S. , 2013, “Effects of Controlled Modulation on Surface Textures in Deep- Hole Drilling,” SAE Int. J. Mater. Manuf., 6(1), pp. 24–32.
Moscoso, W. , Olgun, E. , Compton, W. , and Chandrasekar, S. , 2005, “Effect of Low-Frequency Modulation on Lubrication of Chip-Tool Interface in Machining,” ASME J. Tribol., 127(1), pp. 238–244. [CrossRef]
Ryk, G. , Kligerman, Y. , and Etsion, I. , 2002, “Experimental Investigation of Laser Surface Texturing for Reciprocating Automotive Components,” Tribol. Trans., 45(4), pp. 444–449. [CrossRef]
Ryk, G. , and Etsion, I. , 2006, “Testing Piston Rings With Partial Laser Surface Texturing for Friction Reduction,” Wear, 261(7–8), pp. 792–796. [CrossRef]
Kligerman, Y. , Etsion, I. , and Shinkarenko, A. , 2005, “Improving Tribological Performance of Piston Rings by Partial Surface Texturing,” ASME J. Tribol., 127(3), pp. 632–638.
Ronen, A. , Etsion, I. , and Kligerman, Y. , 2001, “Friction-Reducing Surface-Texturing in Reciprocating Automotive Components,” Tribol. Trans., 44(3), pp. 359–366. [CrossRef]
Etsion, I. , Kligerman, Y. , and Halperin, G. , 1999, “Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Laser-Textured Mechanical Seal Faces,” Tribol. Trans., 42(3), pp. 511–516. [CrossRef]
Galda, L. , Pawlus, P. , and Sep, J. , 2009, “Dimples Shape and Distribution Effect on Characteristics of Stribeck Curve,” Tribol. Int., 42(10), pp. 1505–1512. [CrossRef]
Yu, H. , Wang, X. , and Zhou, F. , 2010, “Geometric Shape Effects of Surface Texture on the Generation of Hydrodynamic Pressure Between Conformal Contacting Surfaces,” Tribol. Lett., 37(2), pp. 123–130. [CrossRef]
ASTM, 2010, “Standard Test Method for Linearly Reciprocating Ball-on-Flat Sliding Wear,” American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. ASTM G133. https://www.astm.org/DATABASE.CART/HISTORICAL/G133-05R10.htm
Qu, J. , and Truhan, J. J. , 2006, “An Efficient Method for Accurately Determining Wear Volumes of Sliders With Non-Flat Wear Scars and Compound Curvatures,” Wear, 261(7–8), pp. 848–855. [CrossRef]
Iglesias, P. , Bermúdez, M. D. , Moscoso, W. , and Chandrasekar, S. , 2010, “Influence of Processing Parameters on Wear Resistance of Nanostructured OFHC Copper Manufactured by Large Strain Extrusion Machining,” Wear, 268(1–2), pp. 178–184. [CrossRef]
Iglesias, P. , Bermúdez, M. D. , Moscoso, W. , Rao, B. C. , Shankar, M. R. , and Chandrasekar, S. , 2007, “Friction and Wear of Nanostructured Metals Created by Large Strain Extrusion Machining,” Wear, 263(1–6), pp. 636–642. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Machine setup for texturing surfaces and (b) schematic representation of a plunging-type texturing configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Images of sample: (a) #1A (constant surface speed) and (b) #1B (constant spindle speed)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Average wear volume from: (a) wear track width [13] and (b) from profilometer [12]—effect of sliding distance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Profile of a wear track on CS after a sliding distance of 76 m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Wear track on: (a) CS after 38 m; (b) #1A after 38 m; (c) #1B after 38 m; (d) CS after 76 m; (e) #1A after 76 m; and (f) #1B after 76 m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Optical micrographs of steel pins after a test against: (a) CS (19 m); (b) CS (38 m); (c) CS (76 m); (d) #1A (19 m); (e) #1A (38 m), and (f) #1A (76 m). Arrows show adhered material.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Optical images and white light interferometric scans of samples: (a) and (e) #2A; (b) and (f) #2B; (c) and (g) #2C; (d) and (h) #2D

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Average wear volume by image analysis [13]—effect of dimple length and depth

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Optical images of wear tracks on: (a) #2A; (b) and (d) #2B; (c) and (e) #2C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

SEM micrographs of wear tracks on CS after sliding distance: (a) and (c) 38 m; (b) and (d) 76 m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

SEM micrographs of wear tracks on #1A after a sliding distance of 76 m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

SEM micrographs and corresponding Fe, Cu, and Zn maps of steel ball after a test against CS (76 m)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

SEM micrographs of wear tracks and corresponding O and Fe maps after sliding distance of 76 m on: (a) CS and (b) #1A



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In