Research Papers: Contact Mechanics

Finite Element Analysis Simulation of the Effect of Induction Hardening on Rolling Contact Fatigue

[+] Author and Article Information
Nguyen Hoa Ngan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École de Technologie Supérieure,
1100 Notre-Dame Street West,
Montréal H3C 1K3, Québec, Canada
e-mail: nguyenhoangan77@gmail.com

Philippe Bocher

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École de Technologie Supérieure,
1100 Notre-Dame Street West,
Montréal H3C 1K3, Québec, Canada
e-mail: philippe.bocher@etsmtl.ca

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received December 11, 2017; final manuscript received May 8, 2018; published online July 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Wang-Long Li.

J. Tribol 140(6), 061404 (Jul 12, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1478; doi: 10.1115/1.4040305 History: Received December 11, 2017; Revised May 08, 2018

The objective of this research is to conduct a finite element analysis to better understand the effects of induction hardening on rolling contact fatigue (RCF). The finite element analysis was developed in three-dimensional to estimate the maximal loading and the positions of the crack nucleation sites in the case of cylinder contact rolling. Rolling contact with or without surface compressive residual stress (RS) were studied and compared. The RS profile was chosen to simulate the effects of an induction hardening treatment on a 48 HRC tempered AISI4340 steel component. As this hardening process not only generates a RS gradient in the treated component but also a hardness gradient (called over-tempered region), both types of gradients were introduced in the present model. RSs in compression were generated in the hard case (about 60 HRC); tension values were introduced in the over-tempered region, where hardness as low as 38 HRC were set. In order to estimate the maximal allowable loadings in the rotating cylinders to target a life of 106 cycles, a multiaxial Dang Van criterion and a shear stress fatigue limit were used in the positive and negative hydrostatic conditions, respectively. With the proposed approach, the induction hardened component was found to have a maximal allowable loading significantly higher than that obtained with a nontreated one, and it was observed that the residual tensile stress peak found in the over-tempered region could become a limiting factor for fatigue rolling contact life.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Hardness profile of induction treatment from the surface to the core

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Fig. 2

Typical profile residual stresses in axial, hoop, and radial directions

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Fig. 3

Hydrostatic residual stress in depth (MPa) and tensile residual stress peak of 200 MPa at depth of 1.0945 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of the mesh at contact zone: (a) global view of flat cylinder A and elliptic cylinder B, (b) fine meshing in the spaces of elliptic center and flat cylinders in contact, and (c) zoom of contact zone showing the fine mesh of 0.08 mm of YZ plane

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Fig. 5

Residual stress distributions introduced in straight cylinder A according to the three directions (in MPa): (a) hoop stress, (b) axial stress, (c) radial stress, and (d) the correlation between the FEA simulation and an experiment measurement of axial residual stress

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Fig. 6

Evolution of stresses in the Dang Van diagram when applying critical loading conditions on homogeneous 38, 48, and 60 HRC cylinders with the residual stress gradient typical of induction hardening, corresponding to maximal loadings of 840 N, 1130 N, and 2345 N, respectively

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Fig. 7

Critical Dang Van distance and maximum shear stress under maximum loading conditions corresponding to a maximum loading of 580 N on a 48 HRC part: (a) distance to the Dang Van criterion along the A-A-axis below the contact point, (b) 2D map with contour lines representing the distance to Dang Van criterion below the surface contact, (c) shear stress along the axis along the A-A-axis below the contact point, and (d) 2D contours for shear stress on the plane orthogonal to the contact surface at which τmax = τf

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Fig. 8

Evolution of stresses in the Dang Van diagram when applying critical loading conditions on homogeneous 38, 48, and 60 HRC cylinders (without residual stress), corresponding to maximal loadings of 420 N, 580 N, and 1320 N, respectively

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Fig. 9

Evolution of stresses in the Dang Van diagram when applying the critical loading condition on a multilayer cylinder with the residual stress gradient typical of induction hardening, corresponding to maximal loadings of 1420 N



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