Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Evaluation of Wear Resistance of Dental Chairside CAD/CAM Glass Ceramics Reinforced by Different Crystalline Phases

[+] Author and Article Information
Qianqian Zhang, Shanshan Gao, Chunxu Liu, Yuqing Lu

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases,
National Clinical Research Center for
Oral Diseases,
West China Hospital of Stomatology,
Sichuan University,
Chengdu 610041, China

Xin Chen

State Key Laboratory of
Oral Diseases,
National Clinical Research Center for
Oral Diseases,
West China Hospital of Stomatology,
Sichuan University,
Chengdu 610041, China

Haiyang Yu

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases,
National Clinical Research Center for
Oral Diseases,
West China Hospital of Stomatology,
Sichuan University,
Chengdu 610041, China
e-mail: yhyang6812@scu.edu.cn

1The authors contributed equally to the paper.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received April 18, 2018; final manuscript received September 16, 2018; published online November 1, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Bart Raeymaekers.

J. Tribol 141(3), 031601 (Nov 01, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1159; doi: 10.1115/1.4041536 History: Received April 18, 2018; Revised September 16, 2018

The mechanical properties of crystalline phase of glass ceramics are critical. This study aimed to evaluate wear resistance of different crystalline-reinforced dental chairside computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) glass ceramics. Materials of feldspar (Vita Mark II, VM), leucite (IPS Empress CAD, EC), lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD, EX), lithium disilicate enriched with zirconia (Vita Suprinity, VS), and enamel were embedded, grounded, and polished, respectively. Samples were indented with a Vickers hardness tester to test the fracture resistance (KIC). Two-body wear tests were performed in a reciprocal ball-on-flat configuration under artificial saliva. The parameters of load force (50 N), reciprocating amplitude (500 μm), frequency (2 Hz), and the test cycle (10,000 cycles) were selected. Specimen microstructure, indentation morphology, and wear scars were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscopy, and three-dimensional profile microscopy. EX, VS, and EC demonstrated significantly higher KIC values than the enamel, while ceramic materials showed smaller wear depth results. Cracks, massive delamination, and shallow plow were seen on the enamel worn scar. Long deep plow, delamination, and brittle cracks are more common for VM and EC, and short shallow plow and smooth subsurface are the characteristics of EX and VS. Greater fracture toughness values indicated higher wear resistances of the materials for the test glass ceramics. The CAD/CAM glass ceramics performed greater wear resistance than enamel. Feldspar- and leucite-reinforced glass ceramics illustrated better wear resistance similar to enamel than lithium disilicate glass ceramics, providing amicable matching with the opposite teeth.

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Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope micrographs showing the microstructure of (a) VM, (b) EC, (c) EX, and (d) VS

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Fig. 2

Micrographs of cracks after Vickers indentation for (a) VM, (b) EC, (c) EX, (d) VS, and (e) enamel

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Fig. 3

Friction coefficients of four dental CAD/CAM glass ceramics and enamel under saliva lubrication

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Fig. 4

Maximum depth for four glass ceramics and enamel

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Fig. 5

Typical optical morphology of wear scars for (a) VM, (b) EC, (c) EX, and (d) VS

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Fig. 6

Scanning electron microscope morphology of enamel worn surfaces: (a) at the edge of worn scar and (b) in the center of worn scar

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Fig. 7

Scanning electron microscope characteristics in the center of worn surfaces for (a) VM, (b) EC, (c) EX, and (d) VS

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Fig. 8

Scanning electron microscope morphology in the center of worn surfaces for enamel (a) at 2000 cycles and (d) at 5000 cycles, VM (b) at 2000 cycles and (e) at 5000 cycles, and EX (c) at 2000 cycles and (f) at 5000 cycles

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Fig. 9

Simplified model of the wear processes in (a) VM and (b) EX



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