Research Papers: Micro-Nano Tribology

Tribological and Nanomechanical Behavior of Liquid Wood

[+] Author and Article Information
Esteban Broitman

Linköping University,
Linköping SE581 83, Sweden;
Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie
Solaire (PROMES),
Tecnosud - Rambla de la Thermodynamique,
Perpignan 66100, France;
SKF Research and Technology
Development Center,
Nieuwegein 3439 MT, The Netherlands
e-mail: ebroitm@hotmail.com

Dumitru Nedelcu

Department of Machine
Manufacturing Technologies,
“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi,
Blvd. Mangeron, No. 59A,
Iași 700050, Romania
e-mail: nedelcu1967@yahoo.com

Simona Mazurchevici

Department of Machine
Manufacturing Technologies,
“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi,
Blvd. Mangeron, No. 59A,
Iași 700050, Romania
e-mail: simona0nikoleta@yahoo.com

Hervè Glenat

Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et
Energie Solaire (PROMES),
Tecnosud - Rambla de la Thermodynamique,
Perpignan 66100, France
e-mail: herve.glenat@univ-perp.fr

Stefano Grillo

Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et
Energie Solaire (PROMES),
Tecnosud - Rambla de la Thermodynamique,
Perpignan 66100, France;
Institut des Sciences de l'ingénierie
et des Systèmes,
Université de Perpignan,
Via Domita, 52 avenue Paul Alduy,
Perpignan Cedex 9 68860, France
e-mail: grillo@univ-perp.fr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received January 9, 2018; final manuscript received August 1, 2018; published online October 11, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Min Zou.

J. Tribol 141(2), 022001 (Oct 11, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1012; doi: 10.1115/1.4041074 History: Received January 09, 2018; Revised August 01, 2018

During the last decades, there has been an increased interest in the use of lignin-based composites following the ideas of developing green materials for fossil-based raw materials substitution. The biopolymer Arboform is a mixture of lignin, plant fibers, and additives, which is nowadays successfully used in many applications. As a thermoplastic, it can be molded and is therefore also called “liquid wood.” In this paper, we report a study comparing the nanomechanical and tribological properties of Arboform (AR), and Aramid-reinforced Arboform (AR-AF) composite biopolymers. The samples were produced in an industrial-scale injection molding machine. Nanoindentation experiments have revealed that, in both series of biopolymer samples, an increase in temperature or a change in the injection direction from 0 deg to 90 deg produces an increase in hardness. On the other hand, Young's modulus is slightly affected by the increase in temperature, and not affected by the injection angle. Tribological characterization has shown that all samples, except the AR-AF injected at 175 °C, present noticeable wear and have a similar friction coefficients μ ∼ 0.44–0.49 at Hertzian contact pressures p0 between 90 and 130 MPa. Interestingly, the reinforced polymer produced at 175 °C shows no wear and low friction of μ ∼ 0.19 at p0 = 90 MPa. Our results show that the reinforced Arboform biopolymers are a good candidate to replace other polymers in many mechanical and tribological applications.

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Fig. 1

Top view displaying the active plates of the injection mold, with injection angles at: (a) 0 deg and (b) 90 deg

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Fig. 2

Optical microscopy of (a) AR sample, 160 °C, 0 deg injection angle; (b) AR-AF sample, 165 °C, 0 deg injection angle; and (c) AR-AF sample, 165 °C, 90 deg injection angle

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Fig. 3

Ra roughness for AR and AR-AF samples

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Fig. 4

Surface probe microscopy image of a nanoindentation done onto the surface of the AR-AF composite sample made at 160 °C and 0 deg injection angle

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Fig. 5

Nanoindentation load–displacement curves for (a) Arboform and (b) Arboform-Aramid composite samples made at different conditions

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Fig. 6

Friction coefficient as a function of time for an AR sample made at 0 deg injection and (a) 150 °C and (b) 160 °C

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Fig. 7

Friction coefficient as a function of time for an AR-AF sample made at 0 deg injection and (a) 165 °C and (b) 175 °C

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Fig. 8

Optical microscopy of wear tracks produced at 1 N (left column: (a) and (d)), 3 N (central column: (b) and (e)) and 6 N (right column: (c) and (f)) for AR samples made at 160 °C, 0 deg injection angle (top row: (a)–(c)), and AR-AF samples made at 175 °C, 0 deg injection angle (lower row: (d)–(f))

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Fig. 9

Profile of wear tracks at different loads for (a) AR sample made at 150 °C and 0 deg injection angle and (b) AR-AF sample made at 175 °C and 0 deg injection angle



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