Research Papers: Friction and Wear

The Effect of Al Addition on the Tribological Behavior of Ti−Si−Zr Alloys

[+] Author and Article Information
Serhii Tkachenko

Frantsevich Institute for Problems of
Materials Science,
3 Khrzizhanivskii Street,
Kyiv 03142, Ukraine
e-mail: tkachenkoserhy@gmail.com

Oleg Datskevich

Frantsevich Institute for Problems
of Materials Science,
3 Khrzizhanivskii Street,
Kyiv 03142, Ukraine

Leonid Kulak

Frantsevich Institute for Problems of
Materials Science,
3 Khrzizhanivskii Street,
Kyiv 03142, Ukraine

Cecilia Persson, Håkan Engqvist

Ångström Laboratory,
Division of Applied Materials Science,
Department of Engineering Sciences,
Uppsala University,
Uppsala 751 21, Sweden

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received April 10, 2018; final manuscript received November 8, 2018; published online January 22, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Bart Raeymaekers.

J. Tribol 141(4), 041604 (Jan 22, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1148; doi: 10.1115/1.4042098 History: Received April 10, 2018; Revised November 08, 2018

While commercial biomedical titanium alloys present excellent biocompatibility and corrosion resistance, their poor wear resistance remains a major limitation. In this study, alloying with aluminum was used to improve the tribological performance of an experimental Ti−Si−Zr alloy. The effect of Al content on the alloy's microstructure and mechanical properties was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Vickers hardness measurements. Sliding wear testing was performed in a ball-on-disk setup, using stainless steel and silicon nitride counterparts and serum solution lubrication. Microstructural examinations showed that an increase in Al content induced a change from eutectic cell microstructure to regular near-equiaxed particles and produced a solid solution strengthening, increasing alloy's hardness. The adhesive tendencies of the α-Ti matrix to the counterpart dominated the frictional response, and a lower friction coefficient was found against silicon nitride compared to stainless steel. In wear tests against stainless steel counterparts, the alloys showed significantly higher wear rates than the CoCr and Ti−6Al−4V references due to severe abrasive wear, induced by the adhesion of titanium matrix to the counterpart. The Al addition had a positive effect on the wear resistance against silicon nitride due to the solid solution strengthening and the change in microstructure, which reduced the risk of brittle delamination. However, while this gave a trend for a lower wear rate against silicon nitride than the Ti−6Al−4V alloy, the wear rate was still approximately three times higher than that of CoCr.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

XRD patterns of the experimental alloys

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

SEM micrographs and element mapping of (a) Ti–6Si–6Zr, (b) Ti–6Si–6Zr–2Al, and (c) Ti–6Si–6Zr–6Al alloys

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Representative coefficients of friction of studied materials tested against (a) stainless steel and (b) silicon nitride counterparts

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Wear tracks on the samples tested with stainless steel (left column) and silicon nitride (right column) as counterparts: ((a) and (b)) Ti−6Si−6Zr, ((c) and (d)) Ti–6Si–6Zr–2Al, ((e) and (f)) Ti–6Si–6Zr–6Al, ((g) and (h)) Ti–6Al–4V, and ((i) and (j)) CoCr alloys

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Wear marks on the surface of stainless steel balls tested against (a) Ti−6Si−6Zr, (b) Ti–6Si–6Zr–2Al, (c) Ti–6Si–6Zr–6Al, (d) Ti–6Al–4V, and (e) CoCr alloys

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Wear marks on the surface of silicon nitride balls tested against (a) Ti−6Si−6Zr, (b) Ti–6Si–6Zr–2Al, (c) Ti–6Si–6Zr–6Al, (d) Ti–6Al–4V, and (e) CoCr alloys



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