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Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Wear Resistance Improvement of Austenitic 316 L Steel by Microwave-Processed Composite Clads

[+] Author and Article Information
Sarbjeet Kaushal

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Gulzar Group of Institutes,
Ludhiana 141401, India
e-mail: sarbjeet.kaushal1988@gmail.com

Dilkaran Singh

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Patiala 147004, India
e-mail: dilkaran22@gmail.com

Dheeraj Gupta

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Patiala 147004, India
e-mail: dheeraj.gupta@thapar.edu

Vivek Jain

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Patiala 147004, India

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received August 6, 2018; final manuscript received December 6, 2018; published online January 25, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Longqiu Li.

J. Tribol 141(4), 041605 (Jan 25, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1310; doi: 10.1115/1.4042273 History: Received August 06, 2018; Revised December 06, 2018

Metal matrix composite (MMC) claddings can be effectively used in severe wear working conditions. The present work successfully develops the MMC clad of Ni + 10% WC8Co + Cr3C2-based material on SS-316 L substrate using cost-effective microwave hybrid heating (MHH) technique. The developed composite clads showed the refined microstructure with the existence of randomly dispersed reinforcement particles inside the Ni based matrix. The phase analysis study results of the clad region revealed the formation of various hard phases of Co3W3C4, Cr7Ni3, NiC, NiW, W2C, Fe6W6C, Fe7C3, FeNi3 during microwave heating. The hard phases present in the clad region contributed to the enhancement in the microhardness. The mean microhardness of the clad region was observed as 550 ± 40 HV. Further, composite clad exhibited excellent wear resistance than SS-316 L substrate under different tribological conditions.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

SEM images of (a) Ni based powders, (b) WC-8Co based powders, and (c) Cr3C2 powders

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Fig. 2

X-ray diffractometer results of (a) Ni based powders, (b) WC-8Co based powders, and (c) Cr3C2 powders

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Fig. 3

(a) Schematic arrangement of MHH setup and (b) inside of microwave applicator

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram showing arrangement of pin-on-disk tribometer

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Fig. 5

Back scattered electronic images of (a) substrate and clad region and (b) zoomed composite clad region

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Fig. 6

EDS analysis (a) corresponding to point X, (b) corresponding to point Y, and (c) corresponding to point Z, in Fig. 3(b)

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Fig. 7

EDS area mapping of composite clad section showing the presence of Ni, Cr, C, and W elements at various locations

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Fig. 8

X-ray diffractometer results of the microwave processed MMC region

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Fig. 9

Microhardness profile of various regions

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Fig. 10

Sliding distance versus cumulative weight loss graphs at different loads and sliding speeds for clad ((a), (c), (e)) and for SS-316 L ((b), (d), (f))

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Fig. 11

Wear-rate comparison of (a) SS-316 L and (b) microwave processed clads

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Fig. 12

Typical SEM images along with EDS analysis of worn Ni + 10% WC8Co + Cr3C2 clad surfaces (a) at 0.5 m/s, (b) 1 m/s, and (c) 1.5 m/s sliding velocity, and at the end of 2000 m of sliding distance and at 2 kg normal load

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Fig. 13

Typical SEM images of worn SS-316 L surfaces (a) at 0.5 m/s, (b) 1 m/s, and (c) 1.5 m/s sliding velocity, and at the end of 2000 m of sliding distance

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Fig. 14

For Ni-based + 10% WC8Co + Cr3C2 clad, (a) SEM micrograph of wear debris and (b) EDS analysis of wear debris

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