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Research Papers: Applications

A Simulation Study on the Effects of Race Surface Waviness on Cage Dynamics in High-Speed Ball Bearings

[+] Author and Article Information
Linkai Niu

Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System of Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province;College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering,
Taiyuan University of Technology,
Taiyuan 030024, China
e-mail: niulinkai@tyut.edu.cn

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Tribology. Manuscript received July 16, 2018; final manuscript received January 3, 2019; published online March 4, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Yi Zhu.

J. Tribol 141(5), 051101 (Mar 04, 2019) (13 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1270; doi: 10.1115/1.4042656 History: Received July 16, 2018; Accepted January 03, 2019

The effects of the race surface waviness on the cage dynamics, including cage slip ratios, cage instabilities, and time-averaged cage wear rates, in high-speed ball bearings are investigated. A dynamic model of high-speed ball bearings considering the cage effect and the race surface waviness is proposed. Based on the proposed dynamic model, the effects of the maximum wave amplitude (MWA) and the wave order (WO) of race surface waviness on cage slip ratio, cage instability, and time-averaged cage wear rate are investigated. The results show that the race surface waviness has a great effect on the cage dynamics. The waviness would increase the random impacts between balls and cage pockets and thus cause more instable motion of the cage. Although the ball skidding and the cage slip ratio decrease with the increase of MWA, the cage instability and the cage wear rate become severe when MWA increases. In addition, the effect of WO on cage dynamics is nonlinear. The current investigation could provide a theoretical tool for an in-depth understanding of the dynamics in a high-speed ball bearing.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Three interactions in a high-speed ball bearing: (a) the ball–race interaction, (b) the ball–cage pocket interaction, and (c) the cage–guiding ring interaction

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Fig. 2

Race surface waviness model

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Fig. 4

Lubricant traction model

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Fig. 5

Flowchart of the simulation

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Fig. 6

Frequency spectrum of the displacement of the bearing housing in the radial direction obtained by the proposed model

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Fig. 7

The whirl motion of a cage. (The guiding ring of the cage is the outer ring.)

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Fig. 8

Effects of MWA on cage slip ratio (WO = 14): (a) effects of the inner race waviness and (b) effects of the outer race waviness

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Fig. 9

The impact force at ball–cage pocket

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Fig. 10

Effects of race surface waviness on contact force: (a) contact forces of normal bearing, (b) contact force at inner race with surface waviness, and (c) contact force at the outer race with surface waviness

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Fig. 11

Effects of race surface waviness on force Fbc: (a) and (b) effects of the inner race surface waviness and (c) and (d) effects of the outer race surface waviness

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Fig. 12

Effect of race surface waviness on cage whirl orbit: (a) whirl orbit: when there is no waviness and (b) whirl orbit when inner race has surface waviness (MWA = 10 µm, WO = 14)

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Fig. 13

Effects of MWA on the cage instability degree (WO = 14): (a) effects of the inner race waviness and (b) effects of the outer race waviness

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Fig. 14

Effect of MWA on time-averaged wear rate of cage (WO = 14): (a) effect of the inner race waviness on the wear due to cage–guiding ring interaction, (b) effect of the inner race waviness on the wear due to ball–cage pocket interaction, (c) effect of the outer race waviness on the wear due to cage–guiding ring interaction, and (d) effect of the outer race waviness on the wear due to ball–cage pocket interaction

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Fig. 15

Effects of WO on the cage slip ratio (MWA = 0.1 µm): (a) inner race waviness and (b) outer race waviness

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Fig. 16

Effects of WO on the cage instability (MWA = 0.1 µm): (a) effects of the inner race waviness and (b) effects of the outer race waviness

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Fig. 17

Effects of WO on force Fbc (MWA = 0.1 µm): (a) effects of the inner race waviness and (b) effects of the outer race waviness

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Fig. 18

The effect of WO on the time-averaged wear rate of cage (MWA = 0.1 µm): (a) the effect of the inner race waviness on the cage wear due to cage–guiding ring interaction, (b) the effect of the inner race waviness on the cage wear due to ball–cage pocket interaction, (c) the effect of the outer race waviness on the cage wear due to cage–guiding ring interaction, and (d) the effect of the outer race waviness on the cage wear due to ball–cage pocket interaction

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