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Research Papers: Mixed and Boundary Lubrication

Boundary Lubricating Properties of Black Phosphorus Nanosheets in Polyalphaolefin Oil

[+] Author and Article Information
Yufu Xu

Institute of Tribology,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Hefei University of Technology,
Hefei 230009, China
e-mail: xuyufu@hfut.edu.cn

Jingyuan Yu

Institute of Tribology,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Hefei University of Technology,
Hefei 230009, China
e-mail: yujingyua_n@126.com

Yinghui Dong

Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering,
Hefei University of Technology,
Hefei 230009, China
e-mail: dongyinghui@hfut.edu.cn

Tao You

Institute of Tribology,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Hefei University of Technology,
Hefei 230009, China
e-mail: mcsyt@126.com

Xianguo Hu

Institute of Tribology,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Hefei University of Technology,
Hefei 230009, China
e-mail: xghu@hfut.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Tribology. Manuscript received July 16, 2018; final manuscript received April 13, 2019; published online May 15, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Yonggang Meng.

J. Tribol 141(7), 072101 (May 15, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1271; doi: 10.1115/1.4043598 History: Received July 16, 2018; Accepted April 13, 2019

As a novel layered material, black phosphorus (BP) shows unexpected characteristics in many aspects including tribological application. In this work, BP was prepared through ball milling from red phosphorus (RP). The boundary lubricating properties of the BP nanosheets were investigated on a ball-on-disk tribometer as lubricating additives in polyalphaolefin oil. The micromorphologies, concentration, and composition of the typical chemical elements on the worn surfaces were measured by the 3D laser scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, respectively. The results show that bulk BP can be found after RP was milled at 500 rpm for 36 h. The Raman intensity of the BP increased initially and then decreased with the increase in milling time, and the maximum intensity can be obtained at 60 h. The BP nanosheets displayed excellent antifriction and anti-wear performances as lubricating additives in PAO6 oil for steel/steel contact in boundary lubrication regime. The boundary lubrication mechanism of the BP nanosheets is dominated by the physical slippery effect of the laminated nanosheets and the tribofilm on the rubbing surfaces.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of tribological tester and characterization of friction pairs

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Fig. 2

Raman spectra of the products under different milling time and different ball-to-RP ratios: (a) 30:1 and (b) 50:1

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Fig. 3

(a) SEM image and (b) EDS spectrum of the bulk BP powder

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Fig. 4

XPS spectrum of the bulk BP powder

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Fig. 5

Raman spectra of bulk BP powder and BP nanosheets

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Fig. 6

(a) TEM images of BP nanosheets and (b) distribution of phosphorus element

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Fig. 7

(ac) Friction coefficient, (a′–c′) average COF, and (d) total average COF of ball-on-disk contact lubricated by PAO6 with or without BP nanosheets under loads of (a) 2.9 N, (b) 4.9 N, and (c) 7.8 N

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Fig. 8

The average WSD of the steel balls lubricated by PAO6 with different contents of BP nanosheets under different loads

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Fig. 9

Optical images of the steel balls lubricated by PAO6 with different contents of BP nanosheets under loads of (a) 2.9 N, (b) 4.9 N, and (c) 7.8 N

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Fig. 10

Profile curves of the disk worn surfaces lubricated by PAO6 with different contents of BP nanosheets under loads of (a) 2.9 N, (b) 4.9 N, and (c) 7.8 N

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Fig. 11

SEM images of the disk worn surfaces lubricated by PAO6 with (a) 0%, (b) 0.001%, (c) 0.005%, (d) 0.01%, and (e) 0.1% BP nanosheets under the load of 2.9 N

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Fig. 12

(a) Survey scan XPS spectra and (b) Fe2p spectra of the disk worn surfaces lubricated by PAO6 with different contents of BP nanosheets under the load of 2.9 N

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Fig. 13

XPS spectra of O1s on the disk worn surfaces lubricated by PAO6 with (a) 0%, (b) 0.001%, (c) 0.005%, (d) 0.01%, and (e) 0.1% BP nanosheets under the load of 2.9 N

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Fig. 14

XPS spectra of C1s on the disk worn surfaces lubricated by PAO6 with (a) 0%, (b) 0.005%, (c) 0.01%, and (d) 0.1% BP nanosheets under the load of 2.9 N

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