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Research Papers: Hydrodynamic Lubrication

Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation of Oil-Jet Gear Interaction1

[+] Author and Article Information
Marc C. Keller

Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery,
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),
Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: marc.keller@kit.edu

Samuel Braun

Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery,
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),
Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: samuel.braun@kit.edu

Lars Wieth

Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery,
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),
Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: lars.wieth@kit.edu

Geoffroy Chaussonnet

Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery,
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),
Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: geoffroy.chaussonnet@kit.edu

Thilo F. Dauch

Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery,
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),
Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: thilo.dauch@kit.edu

Rainer Koch

Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery,
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),
Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: rainer.koch@kit.edu

Corina Schwitzke

Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery,
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),
Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: corina.schwitzke@kit.edu

Hans-Jörg Bauer

Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery,
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),
Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: hans-joerg.bauer@kit.edu

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Tribology. Manuscript received September 3, 2018; final manuscript received April 26, 2019; published online May 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Stephen Boedo.

J. Tribol 141(7), 071703 (May 17, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1359; doi: 10.1115/1.4043640 History: Received September 03, 2018; Accepted April 27, 2019

In this paper, the complex two-phase flow during oil-jet impingement on a rotating spur gear is investigated using the meshless smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. On the basis of a two-dimensional setup, a comparison of single-phase SPH to multiphase SPH simulations and the application of the volume of fluid method is drawn. The results of the different approaches are compared regarding the predicted flow phenomenology and computational effort. It is shown that the application of single-phase SPH is justified and that this approach is superior in computational time, enabling faster simulations. In the next step, a three-dimensional single-phase SPH setup is exploited to predict the flow phenomena during the impingement of an oil-jet on a spur gear for three different jet inclination angles. The oil’s flow phenomenology is described and the obtained resistance torque is presented. Thereby, a significant effect of the inclination angle on the oil spreading and splashing process as well as the resistance torque is identified.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
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References

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Visualization of the two-dimensional quintic kernel function W(r→a−r→b,h) and its 2D projection (left and bottom) with h = 1.3Δx and rmax = 3h. Neighbor particles lie within the radius of influence of center particle.

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Fig. 2

Illustration of a full (TPSPH, left) and incomplete (SPSPH, right) kernel support for a central particle near an arbitrary interface

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Fig. 3

Geometrical details of the investigated spur gear and oil-jet nozzle orientation: (a) section view of the investigated spur gear geometry and jet nozzle placement for radially oriented oil jet and (b) illustration of the jet inclination angle φ and simulated cases A (reference, φ = 0 deg), B (φ = 15 deg), and C (φ = 30 deg)

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Fig. 4

Computational domain and BCs of the two-dimensional SPSPH setup

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Fig. 5

Computational domain and BCs of the two-dimensional VOF setup at t > t0 [9]

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Fig. 6

Computational domain and BCs of the three-dimensional SPSPH setup

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Fig. 7

Snapshots of four consecutive time steps at t = 1.32/1.50/1.98/2.30 τref. For each snapshot (a)–(d), the particles of the two-phase SPH (left) and single-phase SPH (middle) results and the oil volume fraction of the VOF result (right) are depicted: (a) t = 1.32 τref, (b) t = 1.50 τref, (c) t = 1.98 τref, and (d) t = 2.30 τref

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Fig. 8

Oil film flow on gear flanks in gap between tooth I and II from Fig. 7 at two consecutive snapshots. Relative velocity magnitude contour of oil phase (|u→rel|) is shown for (a) the TPSPH (air particles hidden), (b) the SPSPH, and (c) the VOF simulation (oil fraction α < 0.5).

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Fig. 9

Computational costs in CPUh to simulate 3.5 τref of physical time with TPSPH, SPSPH, and VOF. Simulations were run on two 16-way nodes with two Octa-Core Intel Xeon E5-2670 processors each.

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Fig. 10

Relative velocity contour during third jet impingement for case A (φ = 0 deg): (a) t* = 0 (timp = 2.7 τref), (b) t* = 0.18 τref, (c) t* = 0.44 τref, (d) t* = 0.66 τref, and (e) t* = 1.0 τref

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Fig. 11

Temporal evolution of nondimensional resistance torque, obtained by SPSPH simulation of case A

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Fig. 12

Relative velocity contour during third jet impingement for case B (φ = 15 deg): (a) t* = 0 (timp = 2.9 τref), (b) t* = 0.11 τref, (c) t* = 0.37 τref, (d) t* = 0.59 τref, and (e) t* = 1.0 τref

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Fig. 13

Relative velocity contour during third jet impingement for case C (φ = 30 deg): (a) t* = 0 (timp = 3.15 τref), (b) t* = 0.07 τref, (c) t* = 0.26 τref, (d) t* = 0.73 τref, and (e) t* = 1.0 τref

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Fig. 14

Initial oil spreading for cases A, B, and C. Contour represents the radial (left) and axial (right) velocity components on the oil surface, respectively: (a) case A, (b) case B, and (c) case C.

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Fig. 15

Evolution of nondimensional resistance torque during third impingement event for cases A, B, and C. In addition, the fourth impact for case C is included.

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