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Research Papers: Coatings and Solid Lubricants

Effects of Ni-Coated Graphite Flake on Braking Behavior of Cu-Based Brake Pads Applied in High-Speed Railway Trains

[+] Author and Article Information
Peng Zhang

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering,
Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology,
University of Science and Technology Beijing,
Beijing 100083, China
e-mail: zhangpenggre@163.com

Lin Zhang

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering,
Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology,
University of Science and Technology Beijing,
Beijing 100083, China
e-mail: zhanglincsu@163.com

Kangxi Fu

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering,
Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology,
University of Science and Technology Beijing,
Beijing 100083, China
e-mail: 15603335884@163.com

Peifang Wu

Beijing Tianyishangjia New Material Corp., Ltd.,
Beijing 100094, China
e-mail: wupeifang@bjtysj.com

Jingwu Cao

Beijing Tianyishangjia New Material Corp., Ltd.,
Beijing 100094, China
e-mail: caojingwu@bjtysj.com

Cairang Shijia

Beijing Tianyishangjia New Material Corp., Ltd.,
Beijing 100094, China
e-mail: cairang@bjtysj.com

Xuanhui Qu

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering,
Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology,
University of Science and Technology Beijing,
Beijing 100083, China
e-mail: quxh@ustb.edu.cn

1These authors contributed equally to the paper.

2Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Tribology. Manuscript received January 12, 2019; final manuscript received April 18, 2019; published online May 22, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Yi Zhu.

J. Tribol 141(8), 081301 (May 22, 2019) (14 pages) Paper No: TRIB-19-1017; doi: 10.1115/1.4043714 History: Received January 12, 2019; Accepted April 18, 2019

Cu-based brake pads applied in high-speed railway trains containing Ni-coated graphite flake and uncoated graphite flake were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The braking properties of the brake pads were investigated by a scaled down testing apparatus with the pad-on-disk configuration under various braking speeds and braking pressures. Compared with the brake pads containing uncoated graphite flake (designated GF), the brake pads containing Ni-coated graphite flake (designated NGF) exhibits a similar braking performance at lower braking speed and pressure. However, NGF shows more stable friction coefficient, lower linear wear loss, and lower maximum temperature during the braking process at worse braking conditions, e.g., 350 km/h, 1.5 MPa. The Ni-coating on the surface of Ni-coated graphite can transfer the mechanical bonding between copper and graphite to diffusion bonding so that there is a stronger interface bonding between copper and Ni-coated graphite. Further, the multiple linear regression analyses reveal that the mean friction coefficient of NGF is more sensitive to braking pressure than braking speed because of the better thermal resistance of NGF, while the mean friction coefficient of GF and the linear wear loss are mainly affected by braking speed.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The backscattered electron image of the microstructure of the fabricated NGF

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of MS3000 friction and wear test

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Fig. 3

SEM morphologies of uncoated graphite flake (a), Ni-coated graphite flake ((b) and (c)), EDS (d), and XRD pattern of Ni-coated graphite flakes (e)

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Fig. 4

SEM images of GF ((a) and (c)), NGF ((b) and (d)), and the Ni element line scanning at the interface between graphite and matrix in NGF ((e) and (f))

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Fig. 5

HBW, density, and thermal conductivity of GF and NGF

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Fig. 6

Mean friction coefficient of the brake pads tested at varied pressures: (a) 0.5 MPa, (b) 1 MPa, and (c) 1.5 MPa

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Fig. 7

Instantaneous friction coefficient of NGF and GF test at 350 km/h and varied pressures: (a) 0.5 MPa, (b) 1 MPa, and (c) 1.5 MPa

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Fig. 8

Maximum temperature of the brake pads tested at varied pressures: (a) 0.5 MPa, (b) 1 MPa, and (c) 1.5 MPa

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Fig. 9

Linear wear loss at different braking speeds and pressures: (a) 0.5 MPa, (b) 1 MPa, and (c) 1.5 MPa

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Fig. 10

SEM images of the worn surface of the samples tested at varied conditions: (a) GF, 200 km/h, 0.5 MPa; (b) GF, 350 km/h, 0.5 MPa; (c) NGF, 200 km/h, 0.5 MPa; (d) NGF, 350 km/h, 0.5 MPa; (e) GF, 350 km/h, 1.5 MPa; and (f) NGF, 350 km/h, 1.5 MPa. The black arrows show the sliding direction.

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Fig. 11

Optical images of the worn surface and corresponding roughness analysis by laser scanning confocal microscope: ((a) and (b)) GF, 200 km/h, 0.5 MPa and ((c) and (d)) GF, 350 km/h, 0.5 MPa. The arrows in (a) and (c) show the sliding direction and the lines in (a) and (c) show the position making roughness analysis.

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Fig. 12

Optical images of the worn surface and corresponding roughness analysis by laser scanning confocal microscope: ((a) and (b)) NGF, 200 km/h, 0.5 MPa and ((c) and (d)) NGF, 350 km/h, 0.5 MPa. The arrows in (a) and (c) show the sliding direction and the lines in (a) and (c) show the position making roughness analysis.

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Fig. 13

Optical images of the worn surface and corresponding roughness analysis by laser scanning confocal microscope: ((a) and (b)) GF, 350 km/h, 1.5 MPa and ((c) and (d)) NGF, 350 km/h, 1.5 MPa. The arrows in (a) and (c) show the sliding direction and the lines in (a) and (c) show the position making roughness analysis.

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Fig. 14

SEM images of the graphite near the worn surface tested at 0.5 MPa and varied braking speeds: (a) GF, 200 km/h; (b) GF, 350 km/h; (c) NGF, 200 km/h; and (d) NGF, 350 km/h. The white arrows indicate the cracks and the black arrows indicate the worn surface.

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Fig. 15

SEM images of the wear debris generated from varied samples: (a) GF, 200 km/h, 0.5 MPa; (b) GF, 350 km/h, 0.5 MPa; (c) NGF, 200 km/h, 0.5 MPa; (d) NGF, 350 km/h, 0.5 MPa; (e) GF, 350 km/h, 1.5 MPa; and (f) NGF, 350 km/h, 1.5 MPa

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