Abstract

Chronic back pain is highly prevalent worldwide, affecting over 10% of the global population. It is a complex medical problem that affects individuals, families, and communities and has a costly economic impact through an impaired workforce. Pain mechanisms are complicated and include biological, psychological, and social components that can combine to drive unique pain experiences. Beyond conservative management with multimodal pharmacotherapy and more invasive surgical intervention for an identifiable anatomical abnormality, there are limited therapies for the resolution of chronic pain. However, exciting technological developments in spinal cord stimulation have renewed interest in neuromodulation for patients with refractory pain after both conservative and surgical management. Here, we review the efficacy of spinal cord stimulator technologies and other related technologies, including dorsal root ganglion stimulators and peripheral nerve stimulators, as well as highlight future areas of research.

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